429-330 B.C. The Death of Socrates & the Intertestmental Period


A note on the photo

Listen to the era here.



Bible skips Greek period of Israel’s history, picks back up during the Roman occupation – 4/5 B.C., Interesting that it begins after prophesying the date of the return of the Messiah and then picks back up when that date is fulfilled


425 B.C.

Herodotus, the Greek historian dies


424 B.C.

RULERS & ROYALTY: Artaxerxes I dies and Darius II begins his rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire


404 B.C.

RULERS & ROYALTY: Darius II dies ends his rule


400 B.C.

“A number of books from about 400 B.C.) attributed to Hippocrates, the ‘Father of Medicine’) described the symptoms of some common diseases and attributed sickness to diet and other physical causes, rather than to the work of the gods. Although the writings were a beginning, the ancients were still lost when it came to the composition of living things. They believed that all matter was made up of four elements: earth, air, fire, and water. Living bodies were thought to be made up of four ‘humors’ –blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm-and all disease supposedly arose from an excess of one of the humors’” (DBB 7)


399 B.C.

Socrates dies


375 B.C.

Hippocrates, the “Father of Medicine” dies in Thessaly, Greece


385 B.C.

Aristotle is born in Stagira, Greece


367 B.C.

Ptolemy I Soter is born in Macedonia   


365 B.C. 

Euclid of Alexandria is born


356 B.C.

Alexander the Great is born Philip II of Macedon seizes gold mines near the colony Krenides, fortifies the wall, drains the nearby marshes, constructs a theater, increases the city’s size and renames it after himself—Philippi (Paul writes a letter to this city 416 years later in 60 A.D.)  


350 B.C.

A gold choker-necklace is made in Taras (modern day Taranto in Italy) with individual elements produced by hammering thin sheets to shape and add details in wire in the delicate technique of filigree, it had flowers, the heads of what may be different Caesars, or Roman Women? It’s hard to tell (now held in the British Museum, (Collections of the British Museum pg. 31)


340 B.C.

Aristotle proposes that the earth is not flat, but is actually a sphere, in his book On the Heavens, he is not only a great philosopher, he the Greeks’ greatest biologist,

“Aristotle realized (unlike almost everyone before him) that knowledge of nature requires systematic observation. Through careful examination he recognized an astounding amount of order within the living world, a crucial first step. Aristotle grouped animals into two general categories—those with blood and those without—that correspond closely to the modern classifications of vertebrate and invertebrate.”

(Darwin's Black Box pg. 7)


336 B.C.

RULERS & ROYALTY: Darius III begins his rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire


332 B.C.

Alexander the Great occupies Egypt which brings an end to the Egyptian dynasties, a long line of Greek rulers known as the Ptolemies followed, it was Ptolemy II who asked Manetho (Egyptian priest) to put together a history of Egypt for the library of Alexandria, we do not have any of his original writings, the only source for what he wrote are the statements made by subsequent historians (Unwrapping the Pharaohs pg. 73)


331 B.C.

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alexander the Great is the Greek Emperor 


330 B.C.

RULERS & ROYALTY: Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great and the Persian Achaemenid Empire ends in Mesopotamia, Hellenistic period begins,

Alexander the Great founds the port city of Alexandria in Egypt, Today, Alexandria has a population of 5.2 million people