329-201 B.C. - Enter (and Exit) Alexander the Great


A note on the above photo:

Listen to the era here.


325 B.C.

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alexander the Great is ruler over the Greek Empire

Pytheas, a Greek navigator, makes a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe and sails around the British Isles, he notices that it is a country of many kings...

“he came from the western colony of Massilia—modern Marseilles, he was the author of the book On the Ocean, which we only know about insofar as it was quoted by later writers, such as the Roman geographer Strabo, who was working during the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, and the Roman natural historian of the first century A.D., Pliny the Elder.”

(Under Another Sky pg. 8)

Pytheas names the island Prettanike or Brettaniai, this is the origin of the name Britain—the land of the Picts is known by the diminutive Prydyn

Pytheas visits Cornwall and watches the inhabitants work the ore and purify the metal, on another stage of his journey he is told by the natives that the mother of Apollo, Leto, was born on the island, ‘and for this reason Apollo is honored among them above all other gods; and the inhabitants are looked upon as priests of Apollo,’ Pytheas also reports that he saw ‘a wonderful sacred precinct of Apollo and a celebrated temple festooned with many offerings’; it was ‘spherical in shape’ and close by there was a city ‘sacred to this god’ whose lings are called ‘Boreades’ after the god of the north wind, (the identity of this precinct, temple and city have long been a matter of debate, some argue that Pytheas was describing the sacred landscapes of Stonehenge and Silbury Hill; others believe that it refers to a temple of Apollo where Westminster Abbey now stands, and the adjacent ‘city’ of London, it is clear however, that Pytheas was reporting the claims of a people deeply imbued in ritual worship, with the names of Apollo and Boreas simply being used by him as tokens of holiness, the Parthenon had already been built in Athens, and all foreign gods were seen by the Greeks in classical terms, the religion of the Iron Age in England, however, has always been associated with the cult of Druidism. See 50 B.C.) (Foundation pg. 19-20)


324 B.C.

Alexander the Great visits the tomb of Cyrus the Great (who died in 529 B.C.) in Pasargadae only to find it desecrated with the jewels, robe, cape and scimitar stolen and the bones scattered everywhere, this angered Alexander, who wanted to be seen as the true inheritor of Cyrus’ throne, he ordered the tomb to be repaired (Through the British Museum with the Bible pg. 14)


323  B.C.

Alexander the Great dies and wars erupt between his generals over who should rule his vast empire


322 B.C. 

Aristotle dies in Chalcis, Greece


312 B.C.

Seleucus I Nikator (one of Alexander’s generals) finally wins/founds and expands his Seleucid Empire over Media, Persia and Babylon


305 B.C. 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Ptolemy I Soter (one of Alexander’s generals) becomes Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt


300 B.C.

Euclid dies

Seleucus I Nikator (meaning conqueror) founds Antioch

Iron Age Britons begin building a vast hillfort at Maiden Castle in Dorset, (see 43 A.D. when the Roman army takes it) (Castles, Palaces, and Historic Homes pg. 14)

In Korea, iron comes into use for making objects, such artifacts from here are similar in style to earlier objects found in China;

Around this time, Chinese sources begin referring to a “Joseon kingdom” (also called Gojoseon) in this area, and it may have come from the meaning of the words chao, which means morning or dawn, and xian which means fresh or calm, so even today in tourist brochures, Korea is referred to the “Land of the Morning Calm,” (North Koreans today refer to themselves as Joseonaram or “Joseon people,” that is, Koreans), this Joseon or Gojoseon kingdom may have been nothing more than a confederation of tribes to begin with, but it did have a king (see year 109 BC for the last king of the Joseon kingdom) (A Brief History of Korea pg. 17)


283 B.C.

Ptolemy I Soter dies in Alexandria, Egypt


264 B.C.

Punic Wars, or Carthaginian Wars begin between the Phoenician city of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia) and Rome, they last until 146


218 B.C.

The area of the present-day city of Tarragona in Catalonia, Spain, is captured by the Roman generals Gnaeus and Publius Scipio; Up until now, it has been the seat of an Iberian tribe; The Roman general set about improving the city's walls and harbors (Encyclopedia Britannica)

Fast Forward ----->> Caesar Augusts (Roman Emperor from 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.) initiates a period of splendor in city, now named Tarraco, and made the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis in present day Spain; Tarraco becomes the center of the Imperial Cult and a temple to Augustus is built; The amphitheater is also built and is used for both gladiator fights and executions (it can still be seen in the present-day along with fragments of the Roman forum, hippodrome, aqueduct, necropolis, and more)

Fast Forward ----->> The year is 60. Tradition says that Paul the apostle, along with Thecla, found a church in Tarraco

Fast Forward ----->> The year is 719. The city of Tarraco is razed by the moors and remains unimportant until the 1100's

Fast Forward ----->> The year is 1119. Tarraco is recaptured by the Christians and is incorporated into the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon


210 B.C.

The Terra Cotta Army is buried in X’ian, China, to protect China’s First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang, in his afterlife, it consists of about 7,000 life size warriors, 150 cavalry horses, 130 chariots, and 520 chariot horses


206 B.C. 

The rebel leader Liu Bang reunifies China and founds the Han Empire (lasts until 220 AD, the Later Han Dynasty) (History of the World, Map by Map pg. 83)