1680-1699 A.D. - Peter the Great & Isaac Newton

Intro

Body

Photo - Isaac Newton's Memoirs

Music

 

1680

Charles II is on the English throne – Feodor III is on the Russian throne– Leopold I is on the throne as Holy Roman Emperor

 

1681

Charles II is on the English throne – Feodor III is on the Russian throne –Leopold I is on the throne as Holy Roman Emperor

 

1682

Charles II is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) ascends to the Russian throne – Leopold I is on the throne as Holy Roman Emperor

 

1683

Charles II is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian throne – Leopold I is on the throne as Holy Roman Emperor

The Great Frost in London and the Thames freezes over

 

1684  

Charles II is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian throne – Leopold I is on the throne as Holy Roman Emperor

First written record of The Eagle and Child pub in Oxford

 

1685  

James II and VII (of Scotland) ascends to the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne

Johann Sebastian Bach is born in Eisenach, Thuringia, Ernestine Saxon Duchies (Germany),

“With the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, large numbers of Huguenots had fled to London from France. In the houses and garrets of the newly-completed terraces of Spitafields and Benthal Green, they set up a silk-weaving industry which continued well into the 20th century. Soho became known as “Little France” for the sheer number of craft workshops set up by the émigré Huguenots.” (LL 17)

 

1686

James II and VII (of Scotland) is on the English throne (He is Charles I’s son) – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian throne

 

1687

James II and VII (of Scotland) is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne – Leopold I is on the throne as Holy Roman Emperor

The 4th Earl and 1st Duke Devonshire (though he wasn’t given the Dukedom quite yet by William and Mary), William Cavendish, begins to build the Protestant Chapel inside his home at Chatsworth (it has hardly changed since then to the present day), the figures of Faith and Justice on either side of the altarpiece were carved by Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700), and they represent the balance between church and state, which the Duke believed to be under threat from the Roman Catholic King James II

Parthenon partially destroyed  – Isaac Newton publishes his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

 

1688

James II and VII (of Scotland) is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne

The Glorious Revolution takes place, overthrowing the Roman Catholic King James II and replacing him with William and Mary

 

1689

William III and II (of Scotland) ascends to the English throne, with his wife Queen Mary II, daughter of Charles I, this is the reign of “William and Mary” or the “Elephant and Castle”

 

1690

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne, with his wife Queen Mary II, daughter of Charles I, this is the reign of “William and Mary”

 

1691

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne, with his wife Queen Mary II, daughter of Charles I, this is the reign of “William and Mary”

In November, a fire breaks out at Kensington Palace, which is in the process of being rebuilt for William & Mary as their official residence, and it destroys a whole wing before being brought under control (Kensington Palace Guidebook)

 

1692

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne, with his wife Queen Mary II, daughter of Charles I, this is the reign of “William and Mary” - Louis XIV is on the French throne

Kensington Palace nears completion, with a new gallery and staircase for the Queen, as well as rooms for her maids of honor (Kensington Palace Guidebook)

 

1693  

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne, with his wife Queen Mary II, daughter of Charles I, this is the reign of “William and Mary” – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne – Louis XIV is on the French throne – Charles II is on the Spanish Throne – Leopold I is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

The Bank of England is founded which begins the modern banking system

Charles II of Spain, issues a Royal Decree providing sanctuary to escaped slaves from the colony of South Carolina, despite Spanish Florida’s poverty, it provided protection from storms in the Gulf of Mexico for Spanish merchant shipping, the decree was intended to bolster its population while undermining the neighboring colony (Wikipedia, under Charles II of Spain)

 

1694

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne, with his wife Queen Mary II, daughter of Charles I, this is the reign of “William and Mary” – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian throne – Louis XIV is on the French throne – Charles II is on the Spanish throne – Leopold I is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

François-Marie Arouet (pen name is Voltaire) is born on November 21 in Paris, Kingdom of France, he goes on to be a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity—especially the Roman Catholic Church—as well as his advocacy of freedom of speech, freedom of religion and the separation of church and state (Wikipedia)

King William and Queen Mary award William Cavendish, 4th Earl of Devonshire, a Dukedom for helping them to come to the throne, so he becomes the 1st Duke of Devonshire (as well as the 4th Earl of Devonshire), he lives at Chatsworth, a home that has been in the family since 1549, the 4th Earl rebuilt Chatsworth as a Baroque palace, a statement of his power and ambition (Chatsworth Guidebook)

Queen Mary II of England dies of smallpox in her bedchamber at Kensington Palace, William is beside himself with grief

Johann Sebastian Bach’s mother dies, and his father dies eight months later, leaving him orphaned

 

1695

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne – Louis XIV is on the French throne – Charles II is on the Spanish Throne – Leopold I is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Johann Sebastian Bach turns 10 years old in March and is now living with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach who is an organist at St. Michael’s Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

Construction begins on Charlottenburg Palace in Germany (the inauguration of the palace will be in 1699, but it will be completed in 1713), the palace is commissioned by Sophie Charlotte, the wife of Friedrich I, Elector of Brandenburg, in what is now the village of Lietzow  

 

1696

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne – Louis XIV is on the French throne – Charles II is on the Spanish Throne – Leopold I is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

 

1697

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne – Louis XIV is on the French throne – Charles II is on the Spanish throne – Leopold I is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

 

1698

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian throne – Louis XIV is on the French throne – Charles II is on the Spanish throne – Leopold I is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

William III entertains Peter the Great at Kensington Palace, Peter is far more interested in the King’s wind-dial (which survives to this day above the fireplace) than the art in the palace (Kensington Palace Guidebook)

 

1699

William III and II (of Scotland) is on the English throne – Peter the Great (I) is on the Russian Throne – Louis XIV is on the French throne – Charles II is on the Spanish throne – Leopold I is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

July 11, Charlottenburg Palace in what is now Berlin, has its inauguration 

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