1080 - 1099 A.D. - The Templars

(Feature Photo: Illustration by an unknown author of the Jerusalem during the First Crusade in 1099; Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

1080  

RULERS & ROYALTY: William I the Conqueror is king of England

A group of volunteer medics establish a hospital in Jerusalem known as the Hospital of Saint John or the Hospitallers (The Templars 4)

 

1081 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William I the Conqueror is king of England

 

1082  

RULERS & ROYALTY: William I the Conqueror is king of England – 

 

The Christian king Alfonso VI of Castile and León capture the town of Madrid from the Muslims and hereafter several kings of Castile spend time here

 

1083 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William I the Conqueror is king of England

 

1084 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William I the Conqueror is king of England

 

1085  

RULERS & ROYALTY: William I the Conqueror is king of England

Ludlow Castle (the Marcher Fortress) was built in Shropshire to subdue the “Marches” (the English Welsh border), its first Lord was Rodger de Lacy, who built one of the great stone keeps of the 12th century overlooking the River Terne (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland pg. 31)

 

1086 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William I the Conqueror is king of England – the Song dynasty is powerful in China

Others in Power: 

William IX is Duke of Aquitaine

  

1087  

RULERS & ROYALTY: William the Conqueror dies (buried in the Abbey of St. Stephen, Caen, France), his son William II Rufus becomes King of England and is crowned in Westminster Abbey (during his rule, he establishes castles all along the Welsh Marches)

 

1088 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England

William II lays siege to Pevensey Castle and it survives the siege (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland pg. 22)

The first university in Europe is founded in Bologna in the Kingdom of Italy and becomes an important center for legal studies

Female foot-binding becomes widespread, making women crippled so that they were “more desirable, ever available to their masters, and not easily removed by others without a sedan chair or cart…its adoption into wider society probably had something to do with the Confucian reassertion of proprietary male attitudes” (History of China, pg. 326)

 

1089

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England 

 

1090

 RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England

 

1091

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England 

 

1092

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England 

 

1093 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England

Winchester Cathedral is consecrated and opened, one of the earliest graves in England is inside the church (see photo under Winchester Cathedral, this is where Jane Austen will later be buried)

 

1094 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England

 

1095 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England 

Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont (A History of the World, Map by Map, pg. 106)

 

1096 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England

First Crusade begins (1,064 years after Jesus’ resurrection), “The chronicler Ibn al-Athir wrote that at the time of the First Crusade, the mosque (al-Aqsa on the Temple Mount) was frequented by ‘imams, ulema, righteous men and ascetics, Muslims who had left their native lands and come to live a holy life in this August Spot.’

Under crusader rule, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque were stripped of their Islamic sanctity: The Dome of the Rock became a church, while the mosque was repurposed as a palace for the king of Jerusalem; the Christians called the Dome of the Rock the ‘Temple of the Lord’ and they identified al-Aqsa with the Temple of Solomon, in tribute to its historic location.” (The Templars, pg. 33)

 

1097 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus, King of England

William II Rufus begins building Westminster Hall within Westminster Palace, which is the only part of the Palace standing today (though it has been significantly changed after being damaged by a fire in 1291, as the entire complex burned down in 1834, the hall is now within the Houses of Parliament, Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother lied in state there in 2002) (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland, pg. 27)

 

1098 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England

The Cistercian Order is formed when a group of monks of the more popular Benedictine monastery at Cîteaux near Dijon devote their lives to a purer form of religious life (The Templars, pg. 36)

 

1099 

RULERS & ROYALTY: William II Rufus is king of England

First Crusade ends and many parts of the Holy Land are now conquered, “During the Christian conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, this [the al-Aqsa Mosque] had been the venue of one of the worst massacres of Muslim women and children.” (The Templars, pg. 34)

William II Rufus holds a banquet in Westminster Hall upon its completion, although he was reputedly not very impressed with the new building – declaring it a “mere bedchamber” (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland, pg. 27)