1100-1199 A.D. - Richard the Lion Heart

Intro

Photo

Music

 

1100  

William II Rufus dies during a hunting accident (some say his death was

orchestrated by Henry, his youngest brother), he is buried in Winchester

Cathedral in the ossuary chests (see photo under Winchester Cathedral photos) and Henry is crowned as Henry I of England in Westminster

Abbey on August 6, even though his older brother Robert technically should have been king, but Robert was on crusade when William II died, and by the time he got back, his younger brother had already been crowned

– The White Tower in London is completed (it is Henry I’s son, William the Aetheling, who dies on the White Ship in 1120)  

– “The 12th century saw an upsurge in literature in the vernacular (local language), many of them epic poems such as the German sagas, the Nibelungrnlied and Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival, in Southern France, troubadours, traveling performers-poets, spread chanson de geste (“songs of deeds,” tales of romance, heroic deeds, and courtly love), such as the Chanson de Roland, which recounted episodes from Charlemagne’s campaigns against the Muslims in northern Spain in the 770s” (A History of the World, Map by Map 105)

“In the 12th century, scholars such as Abelard (at Paris) and Anselm of Acosta (at Bec) taught classes in theology and logic that attracted large numbers of students, their schools developed into studia generalia or universities, which offered a wider range of courses.”

1101 – Henry I is king of England

– Robert raises a considerable army against Henry I and invades England in June in order to take his rightful place on the English throne, he lands at Portsmouth while Henry’s army waits at Arundel Castle, though Robert has several chances to succeed, he ends up negotiating with Henry and going back home to Normandy

1102  – Henry I is king of England

– Empress Matilda (daughter of Henry I) is born in Sutton Courtenay, England, A storm in Jaffa (today to be found in Tel-Aviv-Yafo) breaks all but seven ships in port and 1,000 sailors and passengers are drowned on March 13, the pilgrim to whom we owe this account was an Englishman known as Saewulf, who kept a pilgrim diary and one medieval copy of it found its way into the library of Matthew Parker, the sixteenth-century bishop of Canterbury, Seawulf was rowed to shore just hours before the storm broke (The Templars 11)

1103 – Henry I is king of England – Anselm, the archbishop of Canterbury, self-exiles

himself because Henry I refuses to allow the papal authority to appoint clergy, the pope threatens to excommunicate Henry and so Henry recalls Anselm (BKQ 67)

1104  – Henry I is king of England

1105  – Henry I is king of England

1106  – Henry I is king of England – Henry I invades Normandy and captures his brother

Robert at Tinchebrai, then brings him back and imprisons him for the rest of his life

(Robert dies, aged 80 in 1134), in this same year, “Henry accepts the clerical authority in investiture on the understanding that the clergy still recognized secular authority over the lands owned by the church. In this way, Henry kept his revenues (which Anselm had maintained belonged to the church and thus to Rome) and it meant he could still agree who had possession of the property. Nevertheless when Anselm died in 1109 Henry succeeded in keeping the see of Canterbury vacant for five years.”  (BKQ 67)

1108  – Henry I is king of England – Philip I, king of the West Franks (France hadn’t fully

come into being yet) dies, and Louis VI takes the throne (until 1137) – After the

First  Crusade,  

many of the pilgrims going to the Holy Land are killed along the way “Pilgrims in any age expect a certain degree of danger from brigands and robbers. But the hostility of the Muslims who lived in and around the new crusader states was more than opportunistic. The losses their people had suffered from the first appearance of the Franks in 1096 were considered shameful and perplexing—a sign of God’s displeasure at divisions in the Muslim world and a call to the faithful to rise in arms to fight back against the invaders, ‘Armies like mountains, coming again and again, have ranged forth from the land of the Franks,’ wrote the Syrian poet Ibn al-Khayyat, before 1109. ‘The heads of the polytheists have already ripened, so do not neglect them as a vintage and a harvest!’” (TT 22)  

1109 – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Anselm, the

archbishop of Canterbury, dies and Henry I succeeds in keeping the see vacant for five years

1110 – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – [GRAND EPOCH: A fifth college is constructed in

the Milling Kingdom (now often referred to as the “College Kingdom”), their Lethian Dome is gaining great prestige and notoriety. People from the Epochal Kingdoms (the Milling Kingdom was also considered an Epochal Kingdom—so there used to be Five Epochal Kingdoms) begin to come and either teach or go to school, or just relocate here as the economy is booming]

1111  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V

becomes the emperor of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor

1112  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German Emperor

1113  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German Emperor

– Severe earthquakes shake Syria and Palestine, which razed towns, while “Virtually very springtime brought plagues of mice and locusts, which swarmed over vines and fields, ruining crops and stripping the bark from trees. From time to time strange eclipses stained the moon and the sky bloodred.” (TT 24) – Geoffrey Plantagenet is born, he’s the Count of Anjou (which is where we get the word Angevin), Touraine, and Maine from 1129 and Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144, (later marries Empress Matilda and their son becomes Henry II, king of England and the first of the Plantagenet kings

– In Cambodia, construction begins on the Angkor Wat (it will be completed by 1150, taking 37 years to build, it will be built by 3000,000 workers with the help of 6,000 elephants) (HWMM 379)

[Angevin comes into prominent history in the Lands Without / GRAND EPOCH: One of Thane’s ancestors either travels to the Lands Without and marries an Angevin, or one of the Angevin Withouters enters the Lands Within and marries Thane’s ancestor there, this will lead to tensions that they have intermarried with Withouters]

1114  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor – Alexios I Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor

– On January 7, Henry I of England’s daughter, Matilda, marries Henry V, the Holy Roman/German emperor, she is only 12 years old, it is clearly a political marriage

– Severe earthquakes again shake Syria and Palestine just like last year, several

buildings and towns are destroyed (TT 24) In January, as an act of diplomacy, Henry

I marries off his daughter Adelaide (changed her name to Matilda upon marriage) to

Heinrich V, emperor of Germany, she was crowned empress the same day (she

was 11, he was 32) (BKQ 68), “Layman who went to fight Muslims in the East were

described as having joined the “knighthood of Christ” (militiae Christi), and having

taken up the “gospel knighthood” (evangelicam militiam)—Ivo, Bishop of Chartres,

describes Hugh, Count of Champagne as such in 1114” (TT 29, 377)

1115 – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – Alexios I Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor

– Saint Bernard of Clairvaux founds Clairvaux Abbey in France, south-east of Paris and Troyes, a Cistercian abbey (today it is in ruins and the present structure dates from 1708, the Abbey has been listed as since 1926 as a historical monument by the French Ministry of Culture, and the grounds are now used by Clairvaux prison, a high security prison)

1116  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – Alexios I Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor

1117  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – Alexios I Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor

1118  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – Alexios I Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor dies on August 15, and his son, John II Komnenos ascends the throne – Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, dies, (Baldwin II ascends the throne) as well as the leading Latin churchman in the Kingdom: Arnulf, patriarch of Jerusalem three weeks later (TT 24)

– Henry I’s wife, Queen Matilda of Scotland dies (BKQ 69) Alfonso, king of Aragon, achieves a victory against the Moors when he captures Saragossa, (EB)

1119 – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – Alexios I Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– Jesus was resurrected 1,090 years ago

– 800 years later, Grandma is born

– Ali ibn Yusuf invades the Iberia (and will do again in 1121)

                        – After the miracle of the Holy Fire at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher

(every year an oil lamp would burst into flame of its own accord and the pilgrims who had gathered to see it would then travel down to the Jordan River to be baptized) “the chronicler Albert of Aachen recorded that once they (the pilgrims) had descended from the mountains to a ‘place of solitude’ near the river, all of a sudden there ‘appeared Saracens from Tyre and Ascalon [two cities still in Muslim hands], armed and very fierce.’ They fell upon the pilgrims, who were ‘virtually unarmed’ and weary after a journey of many days, weakened by fasting for Jesus’ name.’ It was no fight at all. ‘The wicked butchers pursued them, putting three hundred to the sword and holding sixty captive,’ wrote Albert,” this all happened on March 29 (TT 25-26) Then on June 28, at Sarmada in northwest Syria, a very large force of Christians who were occupying Antioch went into battle against an army led by an Artuqid ruler known as Il-ghazi, a drunkard but a dangerous general who occupied nearby Aleppo…the Christians were slaughtered by the hundreds…Fulcher of Chartres estimated that, in all, seven thousand Christians were killed,” the Franks called that place the Field of Blood, out of this event came the “germ of an idea that would lie at the heart of Templar ideology (TT 26)

Henry I defeats Louis VI of France and now holds Normandy unopposed. “When peace was agreed with the Pope’s blessing, Henry I was accepted unchallenged as Duke of Normandy. Henry I cemented this advance

by marrying his eldest son William to Alice (who also changed her name to Matilda),

the daughter of Fulk V, count of Anjou and Maine. William was only fifteen and,

Alice less than twelve.” William stood in succession to the English throne now.

(BKQ 68)

1120  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI “The Fat” is king of the West Franks –

Henry (Heinrich) V is the Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

Louis VII is born to king Louis VI and Adèlaide of Maurienne (he will both marry and divorce Eleanor of Aquitaine)

– Jesus was resurrected 1,091 years ago (in 2022, that would be like looking back to the year 931), the Bible is not in the hands of the people yet, no printing press, no one is memorizing Bible verses, the Catholic Church wields tremendous spiritual power over the kingdoms of Europe—France, Germany, England, Italy, Spain, then there is the Christian Byzantine Empire, at this point in history, where is the enemy hiding the cult? Where is paganism and Baal worship? 

The Council of Nablus convenes on January 16 under the auspices of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem and was “attended by many of the highest-ranking churchmen in the Holy Land, including the archbishop of Caesarea, the bishops of Nazareth, Bethlehem and Ramla, and—significantly, as it would later turn out—the priors of the Holy Sepulcher and the Temple of the Lord in Jerusalem. The purpose of the gathering at Nablus—a town nestled in a valley between two mountains in central Palestine, notable for its plentiful olive trees—was to provide a set of written laws, or ‘canons,’ by which the kingdom could be properly governed in a manner pleasing to God. The Council of Nablus produced twenty-five decrees…” these decrees included declarations against sexual immorality including adultery, sodomy, bigamy, pimping, prostitution, theft, and sexual relations with Muslims, and the punishments ranged from penance and exile to castration and nose slicing (TT 29-30)

The Templars are founded as an order of Christian religious warriors by a French knight, Hugh of Payns, and (so it was later said) eight of his companions, who were looking for a purpose in Jerusalem in the turbulent aftermath of the First Crusade. The initial intention of this little band was to form a permanent bodyguard for Western pilgrims following in Christ’s footsteps on the dangerous roads of the Holy Land…Having received royal approval from the Christian king in Jerusalem and papal blessing from Rome, the Templars quickly institutionalized and expanded.

They set up their headquarters in the Holy City in the al-Aqsa Mosque on the

Temple Mount (known to Muslims as the Haram al-Sharif), sent emissaries to

Europe to round up men and financial support and sought out famous patrons (TT

4) “The twelfth-century archbishop and chronicler William of Tyre explained that,

‘because…they live next to the Temple of the Lord in the king’s palace they

are called the brothers of the Knighthood of the Temple.’ (TT34)

At this time, Europe is mostly made up of the Holy Roman Empire that included: Poland, Hungary, France, Italy, England, Sweden, as well as Spain that is broken up into Portugal, Leon & Castille, Al-Andalus, Aragon and County of Barcelona, then there is the Byzantine Empire which has the whole of Greece and part of Turkey, then there’s the Seljuq Empire in the Middle East (including Israel) (TT Map)

William the Aetheling, son of Henry I and Matilda of Scotland, the

literate, capable queen descended from the line of Wessex kings who had

ruled England before the Norman Conquest, dies in a shipwreck on the White

Ship as it makes its journey from Barfleur across the English Channel on

November 25

1121  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– Ali ibn Yusuf invades Iberia again

– During the 12th century, the pilgrim’s guidebook The Pilgrim’s Guide to Santiago de Compostela is written, it helps pilgrims find their way to the pilgrimage site of Santiago de Compostela, which is the third most important pilgrimage site next to Rome and Jerusalem, in it, the author describes the Poitevins, who live in the duchy of Poitou in what is now France, as “handsome, full of life, brave, elegant, witty, hospitable, and good soldiers and horsemen, and the natives of Saintonge as uncouth, while the Gascons—although frivolous, garrulous, cynical, and promiscuous—are generous as their poverty permitted” and as for the duchy of Aquitaine, one chronicler, Heriger of Lobbes, described it this way, “Opulent Aquitaine, sweet as nectar thanks to its vineyards dotted about with forests, overflowing with fruit of every kind, and endowed with a superabundance of pasture land,” the people of Aquitaine are mostly of Romano-Basque origin (EOA 5-6) – [GRAND EPOCH: There is averant blood in the Aquitaine duchy, Eleanor of Aquitaine will be born next year and then she will pass it on to her first born son that will never make it into the history books]

1122  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

In the 12th century, Europe is split into principalities called feudatories, each under the rule of a king, duke or count, and personal allegiance or fealty was what counted, this is expressed in the ceremony of homage, in which a kneeling vassal would place his hands between those of his overlord and swear to render him service and obedience, the most powerful lords could command obedience and aide from lesser rulers; a breach of fealty is generally held to be dishonorable, and although some paid mere lip service to the ideal, the threat of intervention in a dispute by one’s overlord often remained an effective restraint, on the other hand, an overlord is bound to offer protection, friendship, and aid to a vassal beset with enemies, so the system has its advantages (EOA 3)

                        – Eleanor of Aquitaine is born, the daughter of William, tenth Duke of

Aquitaine, her exact date of birth is unknown, but she is born into a Europe dominated by feudalism, in the 12th century there is no concept of nationhood or patriotism, and subjects owe loyalty to their ruler, rather than the state (EOA 3) and she is raised in one of Europe’s most cultured courts and given an excellent education, she later became an important patron of poets and writers (she also became the mother of Richard I and John I of England) – [GRAND EPOCH: Eleanor of Aquitaine has averant blood, but it isn’t strong enough in her to make an appearance…or is it?]  

– It is decided that the Holy Roman Emperor could invest bishops over secular lands but the pope would still be the only one who could invest bishops with their spiritual authority [why would a king put spiritual leaders over secular lands?] (HWMM 119)

1123  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his queen – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– St. Bartholomew the Great church is built in London, it is the city’s oldest

surviving parish church (the gate house is from the 17th century)

The Silk Road between Luoyang in China and Ctesiphon in modern day Iraq, is flowing, and the city of Dunhuang in China is thriving, it has become an important center for Buddhism, where Buddhist pilgrims and travelers from India reached the city via the Silk Road to spread the religion, over a 1,000 year period (between 336-1227) they dug what is now the famous Mogoa Caves in Dunhuang, decorating them with murals depicting aspects of Buddhist culture (HWMM 102-3)

– The dukedom of Aquitaine is wealthy, thanks to its export of wine and salt, and it is a land in which the religious life flourished, as its rulers erected and endowed numerous fine churches and abbeys, notably the famous abbey at Cluny, and the Aquitanian Romanesque cathedrals in Poitiers and Angoulême, built in the style typified by elegant archways with radiating decoration and lively but grotesque sculptures of monsters and mythical creatures (its overlord is King VI of France, even though the Kingdom of France is much smaller than it and all the other duchies in western France), the dukedom of Aquitaine includes the feudatory of Poitou, and the counties of Saintonge, Angoulême, Périgord, the Limousin, La Marche, and the remote region of Augvergne, the dukedom of wine-producing Gascony, or Guienne, with its bustling port of Bordeaux, and the Agenais is also part of Eleanor of Aquitaine’s inheritance    

1124  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks– Henry V is the

Holy Roman/German emperor, Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) is his Empress – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire – David I begins his reign in Scotland

1125  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Henry V the

Holy Roman/German emperor, dies and Lothair II ascends the throne until 1137

(Matilda, Henry I’s daughter is now no longer empress of the Holy Roman/German Empire, she had no kids with Henry V, and is now back on the market, will marry Geoffrey of Anjou, Count of Anjou in three years BKQ 72) – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– Alfonso, king of Aragon leads a spectacular military raid far into southern Andalusia against the Moors as part of his Reconquista (EB, TT 50)

Lu You, the Song poet, is born in the Song Dynasty in China, he became a compassionate person who was extremely distressed over the widespread female infanticide and urged for the establishment of a maternity fund, he died in 1210 (HC 327)

1126  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II is

Holy Roman/German Emperor – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– Hugh of Payns (founder of the Knights Templars) sets off for France, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux is 36 years old and had been the abbot of his own monastery in Clairvaux (“clear valley”) in the county of Champagne, “the monastery sat in secluded, marshy ground watered by the river Aube, flanked by two shallow hills: one planted with vines, the other with crops. Here several dozen white-mantled

Cistercian monks lived under Bernard’s direction, following a strict, stripped-back

monastic rule.” (TT 37) “Sometime before October 1126, Bernard of Clairvaux

received a letter from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem,” in which the king asked

Bernard to help the Templars obtain approval from the pope for their order (TT 38)

1127  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II is

Holy Roman/German Emperor – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– Henry I grants Rochester Castle to Corbeil, Archbishop of Canterbury, and his successors, Henry I also arranges a marriage for Matilda his daughter, (she’ll become the mother-in-law to Eleanor of Aquitaine), to Geoffrey of Anjou, who is only fourteen, “The Normans had little affection for the Angevins and did not like to consider that Geoffrey might become their king.” BKQ 70), “Somewhere between October 1127 and spring of 1129, Hugh of Payns and his companions…tracked down Henry I, king of England and duke of Normandy, whom Hugh pressed for permission to raise funds across the channel. Their encounter was recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle: ‘Hugh of the Knights Templars came from Jerusalem to the king of Normandy; the king received him with great ceremony, and gave him great treasures of gold and silver, and sent him thereafter to England, where he was welcomed by all good men.’” (TT 41)

1128 – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II is

Holy Roman/German Emperor – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali

ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– David I of Scotland builds an Augustinian abbey on forested land below the slopes of the old volcanic mound of Arthur’s Seat (where the Holyrood Abbey and House will later stand), the Abbey of Holyrood prospered from an early date and contained royal chambers for use by the sovereign (Holyrood Tour Book)

1129  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II is

Holy Roman/German Emperor – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– On Sunday, January 13, The Council of Troyes officially met, “The seat of the Count of Champagne, Troyes was a prestigious commercial hub whose skyline was dominated by two great religious buildings: the Romanesque cathedral of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and the Abbey of Saint Loup, a famously learned house of

Augustinian canons…Hugh had called the gathering so that the Templars

could be officially recognized and given a form of quasi-monastic rule.” (TT

42-43) Geoffrey of Anjou asks Henry I (his father-in-law) to give him custody of the castles along the French coast, and Henry I refuses, after this their relationship deteriorates rapidly, especially after Matilda leaves Geoffrey because she cannot abide him (by 1135 Henry I and Geoffrey are openly at war) (BKQ 70) King Baldwin II of Jerusalem attacks Damascus and “the Arab chronicler Ibn al-Qalanisi estimated that the Christian army was tens of thousands strong, thick with reinforcements from overseas.’” (TT 41) Bernard of Clairvaux writes his tract De Laude, and addresses it directly to Hugh of Payns, the character and purpose of the Templars occupy the first four chapters, and the remainder—a further nine chapters—was a guided tour of the sites of the Holy Land that the Templars were to defend, it begins with the Temple itself, then goes on to mention Bethlehem, Nazareth, the Mount of Olives, the river Jordan, the Holy Sepulcher and the villages of Bethpage and Bethany—popular pilgrim sites within a day’s ride of Jerusalem (TT 49)

1130  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – No Holy Roman

Emperor (1125-1133) – Innocent II becomes the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome on February 12 (until 1143) – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

“The twelfth century was one of the richest times of Christian renewal in the whole Middle Ages. Monasticism was exploding in popularity, and flowering with a diversity unseen since the early days of the Church. ‘O how innumerable a crowd of monks has by divine grace multiplied above all in our days,’ wrote an abbot  in the 1130s. ‘It has covered almost the entire countryside of Gaul [i.e., France] and filled the towns, castles and fortresses.’ This was more than rhetoric: it has been estimated that between the middle of the eleventh and the middle of the twelfth centuries the number of religious houses in many parts of Europe had expanded by 1000 percent.” – “By the 1130s the war on the Iberian Peninsula had gained the political and spiritual status of a crusade.” (The Templars 37, 61)

The Islamic Almoravid Empire is stretched across northwest/east Africa and into what is now Spain and Portugal, and Alfonso the Battler of Spain has been fighting them for most of his adult life by this point, “in the 1130s and 1140s the Templars flooded into Spain” (The Templars 64)

– In the 1130s, a school of translators is established at Toledo in modern day Spain (which had been in Muslim hands from ______ and re-conquered by the Christians between 1030-1200) by Archbishop Raymond, they translate many Arabic and Hebrew works as many scientific and philosophic works by Greek scholars have survived only in the Islamic world, often translated into Arabic and added to by Muslim writers, in the 1100s they filtered into Europe, through areas such as Sicily and parts of Spain, such as Toledo, that had recently been conquered from Muslim powers, manuscripts of many works by Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Euclid were then translated into Latin and helped fuel the 12th century revival in scholarship (A History of the World Map by Map 105) 

1131  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – No Holy Roman

Emperor (1125-1133) – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire – King Baldwin II of Jerusalem dies and Fulk of Anjou becomes king of Jerusalem

1132  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – No Holy Roman

Emperor (1125-1133) – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– Fountains Abbey, a major Cistercian house, is founded in England

1133  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II

(sometimes called Lothair III) becomes Holy Roman Emperor – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

1134  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II

(sometimes called Lothair III) is Holy Roman Emperor – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– “In July, Alfonso the Battler, king of Aragón, set up camp outside the city of Fraga and commanded his servants to bring him his relics. He had quite an impressive collection. Over the course of a long and colorful career the sixty-one-year-old king had acquired fragments of the bodies or belongings of the Virgin Mary, several apostles, a few early Christian martyrs and assorted other saints, all of which were housed in small ivory boxes leafed with gold or silver and studded with precious gems. His finest relic of all was a piece of timber said to have come from the cross on which Jesus was crucified, which had been carved into a small crucifix and was kept in a jewel-encrusted ark made of solid gold. Alfonso had stolen it from a monastery in León, on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela,” Alfonso tried attacking the relief train of camels that were bringing relief into the city, but it was a trap and Alfonso’s whole army and camp were either captured or killed, he dies on September 7 most likely from wounds sustained in battle, he left a third of his kingdom to the Templars—and the other thirds to other orders—which meant they now had a part in the Reconquista in Spain, as well as land, power, and even people subject to them (TT52-54), his brother Ramiro is bishop of Barbastro-Roda when Alfonso dies, the aristocracy takes him out of holy orders and puts him on the throne, despite Alfonso leaving the crown to the three religious military orders – [GRAND EPOCH: Anaphorian Rime is digging deeper into the epochs, as well as creating new shafts, Anaphora has been a kingdom for 269 years]

1135  – Henry I is king of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II

(sometimes called Lothair III) is Holy Roman Emperor – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

On December 1, Henry I, King of England, travels to the castle at Lyons-la-Forêt in upper Normandy to enjoy some hunting, but is taken ill the last weekend in November and his illness progresses terribly until he dies by the end of the week, aged 68 (buried in Reading Abbey), though Henry I made all the barrens swear fealty to his daughter Matilda, her cousin Stephen, upon hearing of his uncles death, quickly leaves Boulogne (the seat of his wife’s family), crosses directly to England and straight to London to have himself proclaimed King of England and is crowned in Westminster Abbey on December 26, Matilda is pregnant with her third son at the time and couldn’t move as swiftly as her cousin – King Ramiro II of Aragon marries Agnes of Aquitaine – [GRAND EPOCH:]

1136  – Stephen is on the throne of England (William the Conqueror’s grandson through his

daughter Adela, Stephen is also married Matilda, the niece of his father’s first wife Matilda and granddaughter of Malcolm III of Scotland, she is also fifth in descent from Edmund Ironside, Stephen has thus married into the royal blood of Wessex) – Louis VI is king of the West Franks – Lothair II (sometimes called Lothair III) is Holy Roman Emperor – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– King Stephen of England is starting out as a popular king, affable nature, but a firm hand that rapidly commanded respect

– Hugh of Payns dies on May 24, Petronilla is born to King Ramiro II of Aragon and his wife, Agnes of Aquitaine – [GRAND EPOCH:]   

1137  – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VI is king of the West Franks until he

dies on August 3 and Louis VII becomes king (b. 1120, r. until 1180) – Lothair II

(sometimes called III) is Holy Roman Emperor until December 4, when he dies and there is no Holy Roman Emperor until 1155, However, Conrad III is elected as king of Germany (formally called “king of the Romans”) until 1152, he is the first in the Hohenstaufen Empire that will last until 1250 – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

–  Eleanor of Aquitaine is left with a vast inheritance when both her brother and father die in this same year, she then becomes the most eligible heiress in Europe, that same year she marries prince Louis of France, and when King Louis VI of France (her father-in-law) dies this same year, Louis becomes king Louis VII of France and Eleanor becomes queen of France (the couple have two daughters) – Eighteen of the Knights Templars are besieged along with Fulk of Anjou, King of Jerusalem in the castle of Montferrand – King Stephen of England’s wife gives the Templars the wealthy and well-connected manor of Cressing, in Essex, (Now Temple Cressing), to which Stephen later added nearby land in Witham, he wanted the Templars on his side and not Matilda’s as they both fought for their right to the English throne, this period of war between them is called the Anarchy (TT 61) – Petronilla is betrothed to Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Barcelona who is twenty-four (marriage ratified in 1150 when she was fourteen)

[GRAND EPOCH:]

1138  – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks, Eleanor

of Aquitaine is his queen – No Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

Maimonides (Jewish Sephardic philosopher, physician and astronomer who wrote that King Solomon hid the Ark of the Covenant in a network of tunnels under the temple mount) is born in Córdoba, Spain

– [GRAND EPOCH:]

1139 – Stephen is king of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks, Eleanor

of Aquitaine is his queen – No Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire –

            – Matilda, Henry I’s daughter and cousin of Stephen, king of England, sails to England to take the throne by force, she’s supported by her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester and her uncle, King David of Scotland

– Alfonso I wrests Portugal from fealty to the Kingdom of León, and establishes it as an independent kingdom (HWMM 379)

– [GRAND EPOCH:]

1140 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks – No

Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome

– By this time “the Templars are building up vast networks of property in Champagne, Blois, Brittany, Aquitaine, Toulouse, and Provence, establishing commanderies to fix their local presence, dozens of Templar houses sprang up from the Gulf of Genoa to the new Atlantic kingdom of Portugal, which was also being clawed out of Islamic hands and resettled by Christians under the self-proclaimed first king of Portugal, Afonso I Henriques, during the 1140s, Afonso Henriques cleared the valley of the lower Tagus, eventually conquering as far south as Lisbon, where the river empties into the Atlantic Ocean (TT 61) – [GRAND EPOCH:]

1141 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks – No

Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – Innocent II

is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire

– Matilda’s (king Stephen’s cousin and wife of Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou) forces capture King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln, but her attempt to be crowned in Westminster Abbey falls apart in the face of bitter opposition from London crowds

[GRAND EPOCH:]

1142 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks – No

Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – Innocent II is the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor – Ali ibn Yusuf is the emir of the Almoravid empire – [GRAND EPOCH:]

1143 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks – No

Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – Innocent II is

the 164th Pope/Bishop of Rome until September 24, when he dies, and on September 26, Celestine II becomes Pope/Bishop of Rome – John II Komnenos is the Byzantine Emperor until he dies on March 8, and his son Manuel I Komnenos becomes the Byzantine Emperor (b. 1118, r. 1143-1180), the fourth and youngest son of John II, he is chosen as emperor over his elder brother Isaac by his father on his deathbed, Manuel becomes an energetic ruler, launching campaigns against the Turks, humbling Hungary, achieving supremacy over the Crusader states, and tries unsuccessfully to recover Italy, his extravagance and constant campaigning however, will deplete the Empire’s resources (Wikipedia) – Ali ibn Yusuf, the emir of the Almoravid empire dies – [GRAND EPOCH:]

1144 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks – No

Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – Celestine II is Pope/Bishop of Rome until March 8 when he dies and on March 12, Lucius II becomes Pope/Bishop of Rome – [GRAND EPOCH:]

1145 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks – No

Holy Roman Emperor (1338-1155) – Conrad III is king of Germany – Lucius II is the 166th Pope/Bishop of Rome until February 15 when he dies and on March 12, Eugene III becomes the 167th Pope/Bishop of Rome

[GRAND EPOCH:]

1146 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

1147 – Stephen is on the throne of England until April 7 when he is deposed, and Matilda is

briefly queen up to November 1 when Stephen is restored to the throne – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

– Eleanor of Aquitaine (and queen of France) accompanies her husband king Louis VII of France on the Second Crusade, traveling to Constantinople and Jerusalem (the crusade is a failure, and relations between the couple deteriorate even further as she doesn’t produce a son for him)

– “In April 1147 he (Afonso I Henriques, first king of the new Kingdom of Portugal) issued a charter diverting the revenues of every church in the region of his castle at San-tarém into Templar hands, ‘for the…knights and their successors to have to hold with perpetual rights so that no clergy or layperson may make any claim in them.’ Later he swapped this with the Templars for a superb castle in Cera and allowed them to found a new town for their headquarters, which they called Tomar. Knitting the Templars into the affairs of his new kingdom brought security and prestige. It was also a practical way of colonizing and garrisoning newly won land.” (The Templars 61)

The Almohad Caliphate conquers the Almoravid Empire’s capital city of Marrakesh in Morocco, it was a North African Berber Muslim empire which, at its height, controlled much of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) and North Africa, at this point much of present-day Spain and Portugal is called the Al-Andalus and the Almohad capital there was Seville (1147-1162), Córdoba (1162-1163), then Seville again (1163-1248), so during this time was the “Reconquista” when the Spanish kingdoms in present-day Spain were trying to push the Muslims off their land  

– Crusaders help the Portuguese to capture Lisbon from local Muslim rulers (A History of the World, Map by Map 106)

1148 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

– The Aragonese Templars help the king of Aragon lay siege to the city of Tortosa in present-day Spain (TT 65)

1149 – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

– The Aragonese Templars help the king of Aragon lay siege to the city of Lèrida in present-day Spain (TT 65)

1150  – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

– The Lewis Chessman are carved out of walrus-ivory on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides, “they are the greatest surviving series of medieval chessman, they date from the middle of the twelfth century A.D.” They were found in 1831 and the 80 pieces are thought to be the work of a Scandinavian artist, now housed in the British Museum (CBM 128) – Petronilla’s marriage to Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Barcelona is ratified at a wedding ceremony held in the city of Lleida (TT 64-65)

1151  – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

1152  – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

Eleanor of Aquitaine and king Louis VII of France get divorced after no male heir is produced, in the same year she (now 28yrs old) marries 19 year old Henry II Fitzempress (he’s Matilda, Empress of Germany/Holy Roman Empire’s son, and grandson to Henry I, but not king yet because Stephen, Robert’s son is on the throne) in the cathedral in Poitiers, France, Henry II, a “young man, aged 19, is stocky, with red hair, and restless with pent-up energy, knowing he was doing a daring thing,” Eleanor, “11 years his senior, and with long auburn locks, is exceptionally beautiful, very beautiful and a willing accomplice in this furtive ceremony,” Henry had already established a reputation as one of the most formidable princes in Europe, not only does he hold strategically important domains in what is now France, but he is also heir to his mother’s claim to the Kingdom of England—a claim that few doubt he will prosecute successfully (EOA 1) 

– Petronilla, Queen of Aragon, Spain, now 16 yeas old, has her first child, Peter (who dies five years later) and while she is pregnant she writes up a will bequeathing her kingdom of Aragon to her husband in case she did not survive childbirth, The Aragonese Templars help the king of Aragon (Petronilla’s husband, the Count of Barcelona) lay siege to the castle in Miravet in present-day Spain

1153  – Stephen is on the throne of England – Louis VII is king of the West Franks

1154  – King Stephen dies, Henry II Fitzempress or Curmantle (Empress Matilda’s

son) is crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his

queen – Louis VII is king of the West Franks, he marries Constance of Castile –

– [GRAND EPOCH: Eleanor of Aquitaine gives birth to Thanuel of Angevin, Thane’s first ancestor who is now entwined with the Angevin Empire]

1155  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Constance of Castile is his queen

1156  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, he marries Constance of Castile

1157  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, he marries Constance of Castile

– On September 8, Eleanor, Queen of Aquitaine and England, gives birth to Richard I

1158  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, he marries Constance of Castile

1159  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, he marries Constance of Castile – Pope

Adrian IV dies and Pope Alexander III is installed as bishop of Rome

1160  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, his queen, Constance of Castile dies and he marries Adèle of Champagne

1161  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

1162  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

– Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162-1170

– Petronilla’s husband dies, and her son inherits the throne of Aragon, Aquitaine and Barcelona  

1163  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

– Construction on Notre Dame begins  

1164  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

– The first university is founded in Oxford

1165  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

1166  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

– On December 24, Eleanor, Queen of Aquitaine and England, gives birth to John I

1167  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

– Empress Matilda of the Holy Roman/German Empire of England, and mother of Henry II dies in Rouen, France

1168 – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

1169 – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

1170 – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Louis VII

is king of the West Franks, Adèle of Champagne is his queen

Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, is murdered in Canterbury  Cathedral after engaging in a conflict with Henry II (Henry Fitzempress, Matilda’s son, Eleanor of Aquitaine’s husband and father to Richard and John), Henry II’s knights misunderstood the King’s angry words and went and killed Thomas, he was soon after made a saint by Pope Alexander III

                        – The large city of Cahokia (near present day St. Louis, Missouri) is burned,

Cahokia’s population rivals Paris, it’s a trading center, and is surrounded by 120 pyramids and farmland (modern archaeologists surmise that rebels burned the town, and were the ones that instituted the sun imagery that was used thereafter), before the fire, the homes were large and reflected wealth and stature, after the fire, a defense is built around the city, and the homes are much smaller (see year 1250)

1171 – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen

1172  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen

1173  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen – Eleanor

of Aquitaine’s sons (Richard and John) involve her in a plot against their father Henry II, as a result Henry II has her imprisoned, she’s now 41 years old – Petronilla dies at the age of thirty-seven on October 15 in Barcelona and is buried at Barcelona Cathedral (her tomb is now lost)

1174  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1175  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him) – Alter-cross of gilt copper and champlevé is made,

it’s a “masterpiece of Romanesque enamel. Made in the Mosan region or Middle Rhineland…The five scenes on the cross were chosen as Old Testament prefigurations of the Crucifixion.” Now housed in the British Museum (CBM 131)

1176 – Henry II is on the throne of England/Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1177 – Henry II is on the throne of England/Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1178 – Henry II is king of England/Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1179  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1180  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him) – Louis VII of France dies and Philip II becomes king

of France, Henry II rebuilds Dover Castle, spending vast sums on it, making it the most expensive castle project of its time.  

1181  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him) – Pope Alexander III dies and Lucius III is installed

as bishop of Rome

1182  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him) – Jewish people are expelled from Paris and Provins,

“By the 12th century, there were large Jewish communities (around 100,000) in Germany and France. Jewish merchants gained a high profile from moneylending and, combined with their status as religious outsiders, this made them vulnerable to prejudice, Jews suffered legal restrictions and massacres (especially during the Crusades and Black Death), and by 1492, they were expelled entirely from England, France, and Spain” (HWMM 112)

1183  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1184  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him) – [Haetae is born in the Lands Without in Korea,

she is living during the Goryeo kingdom era]

1185  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him) – Temple Church in London, located between Fleet Street and the River Thames and built by the Knights Templar as their English Headquarters, is consecrated on February 10 (this is 65 years after they were founded in Jerusalem in order to protect the pilgrims coming to the Holy Land)

1186  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1187  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him) – Muslim forces under Saladin wrest control of the city from the Crusaders (JB 202)

1188  – Henry II is on the throne of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine is his queen (though

now she’s imprisoned by him)

1189  – Henry II Fitzempress or Curmantle dies (buried in Fontevrault Abbey,

Anjou,) Richard I Lionheart is crowned king of England in Westminster

Abbey and releases his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, from prison, she becomes very  involved in government again – Rebuilding of Dover Castle is finished – [Haetae is now 5 years old, living in Korea]

1190  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England – 150 Jews are killed in a

pogrom in the York Castle Keep (Clifford’s tower), many of them commit suicide so

as not to fall into the mob’s hands

1191  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England – Richard I the Lionheart is on

the throne of England – Saladin begins to refortify Jerusalem after taking control of it in 1189 (JB 202)

1192  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England – Teutonic Order of knights is

founded in Acre (and is still active)

1193  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England

1194  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England

1195  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England

1196  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England – Richard I makes Otto IV

(future king of Germany with Richard’s help) the Count of Poitou

1197  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England – Tax Riot in London [Haetae

is approached/befriended by a Withiner, asked if she wants to go back with her into the Lands Within to go to school and she says yes / GRAND EPOCH: Haetae enters the Lands Within at 13yrs old, goes to school in Milling Kingdom, almost immediately she becomes friends with a great family named the Dashlades who were great scribes and scroll-keepers]

1198  – Richard I the Lionheart is on the throne of England – Fredrich II becomes king of

Sicily – Otto IV (b. 1175/d. 1218) is elected King of Germany and of the Romans  with the help of Richard I of England in a disputed election that led to ten years of civil war, his rival is Philip of Swabia (who dies in 1208, this making Otto IV the sole king of Germany) – [Haetae is 14 years old and a student at ____ college in the Milling Country]

1199  – Richard I Lionheart dies, John Lackland is crowned king of England in

Westminster Abbey – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war)

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