850 - 879 A.D.

Intro

Intro paragraph

Music

(Feature Photo: Pictish Culswick Broch, Shetland islands, Scotland; Credit: Colin Smith, Wikimedia Commons)

 

850 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Lothair is emperor of the Carolingian Empire (though now the empire is split up into three parts): Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is now king of East Francia  Leo IV is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

Leede builds the original Leeds Castle in Kent (Castles, Palaces, and Stately Homes, Pg. 14)

The Khazarian Khaganate has reached its peak; "The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people that in the late seventh-century established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia, southern Ukraine, Crimea, and Kazakhstan" (Wikipedia(Photo: Map showing the extant of the Khazarian territories; Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

851

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Lothair is emperor of the Carolingian Empire (though now the empire is split up into three parts): Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is now king of East Francia  Leo IV is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

852

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Lothair is emperor of the Carolingian Empire (though now the empire is split up into three parts): Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is now king of East Francia  Leo IV is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

853

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Lothair is emperor of the Carolingian Empire (though now the empire is split up into three parts): Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is now king of East Francia  Leo IV is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

854

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Lothair is emperor of the Carolingian Empire (though now the empire is split up into three parts): Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is now king of East Francia  Leo IV is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

855 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Lothair, emperor of the Carolingian Empire, dies, and is succeeded by Lothair II (the empire is split up into three parts): Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia, and Lothair is both king of Middle Francia and emperor of all three  Pope Leo IV dies, and is succeeded by Benedict III – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) – 

July 17, Pope Leo IV dies, aged 64-65, and he is succeeded by Pope Benedict III

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On the Byzantine Empire:

"As the centre of all imperial administration, diplomacy, court patronage and training in skilled craftwork, the city provided opportunities for people from the provinces and farther afield who sought jobs and patrons, as well as mercenaries and spiritual leaders."

(Byzantium, Pg. 17)

 

 

856

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  Benedict III is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) – 

 

857

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  Benedict III is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) – 

 

858

RULERS & ROYALTY: Kenneth MacAplin, king of the Picts (Scots), dies, and Domnal mac Ailpín succeeds him – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  Pope Benedict III dies, and he is succeeded by Nicholas I – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) – 

April 24, Pope Benedict III dies and Pope Nicholas I, “Nicholas the  Great,” is installed as Pope/Bishop of Rome on April 24 (858 A.D. to 867 A.D.), during his time as pope, he “specifically stated that for churchmen, self-defense must mean following Christ’s example and turning the other cheek” (The Templars pg. 29)

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And...Still Dying

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859

RULERS & ROYALTY: Domnal mac Ailpín is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) – 

 

860

RULERS & ROYALTY: Domnal mac Ailpín is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) – 

The Russians attack Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey) in the Byzantine Empire

 

861

RULERS & ROYALTY: Domnal mac Ailpín is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) – 

 

862

RULERS & ROYALTY: Domnal mac Ailpín, king of the Picts (Scots), dies, and is succeeded by Causantín mac Cináeda – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

April 13, Domnal mac Ailpín, king of the Picts (Scots) dies, and Causantín mac Cináeda succeeds him

 

863

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

Constantine-Cyril and Methodios (from the Byzantine Empire) begin their mission to Moravia

 

864

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

865

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

866

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Nicholas I is pope/bishop of Rome – Michael III is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

A large army of Danish Vikings capture York (or Jorvik)

 

867

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia – Pope Nicholas I dies, and is succeeded by Adrian II – Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine Empire, dies, and is succeeded by Basil I – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

September 24, Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine Empire, is murdered by Basil I, in Constantinople; Michael III was 27 years old; Basil I is now the emperor

November 13, Pope NicholasI dies, and he is succeeded by Adrian II

 

868

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia Adrian II is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

869

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia Adrian II  is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

The Eighth Oecumenical Council in Constantinople takes place

 

870

RULERS & ROYALTY: Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  Adrian II  is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

The Eighth Oecumenical Council in Constantinople finishes

 

871

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" becomes king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  Adrian II  is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

872

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  Pope Adrian II dies, and is succeeded by John VIII – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

December 14, Pope Adrian II dies, and is succeeded by John VIII

 

873

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  John VIII is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

874

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II is king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire: Charles II "The Bald" is king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire) and Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  John VIII is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

875

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) – Louis II, king of Middle Francia and emperor of the entire Carolingian Empire, dies, and is succeeded by Charles II "The Bald" who is also king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire); Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  John VIII is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

The Danish army returns to York and its leader, Halfdan takes control of the city and the surrounding area known as “The Kingdom of Jorvik”

 

876

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots) Charles II "The Bald" is emperor of all the Carolingian Empire, as well king of West Francia (the western part of the Carolingian empire); Louis II "The German" is king of East Francia  John VIII is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

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Bavaria, Saxony, and Swabia Become Kingdoms

August 28, Louis II "The German," king of East Francia, dies, and he is succeeded by his three sons who now split up his kingdom into three parts: Carloman becomes king of Bavaria, Louis III becomes king of Saxony, and Charles "The Fat" becomes king of Swabia

 

877

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Causantín mac Cináeda is king of the Picts (Scots)  Charles "The Bald" dies, and there will be no emperor of the Carolingian Empire until 881 (though there are many kings within the empire)  John VIII is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

October 6, Charles "The Bald," emperor of the Carolingian Empire and king of West Francia, dies, aged 54, and is succeeded by Charles III "The Fat"

Causantín mac Cináeda, king of the Picts (Scots), dies, and is succeeded by Áed mac Cináeda

 

878

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Áed mac Cináeda, king of the Picts (Scots), dies and is succeeded by Giric  No emperor of the Carolingian Empire until 881 (though there are many kings within the empire)  John VIII is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –

 

879

RULERS & ROYALTY: Alfred "The Great" is king of the West Saxons (southern England) – Giric is king of the Picts (Scots)  No emperor of the Carolingian Empire until 881 (though there are many kings within the empire)  John VIII is pope/bishop of Rome – Basil I is emperor of the Byzantine Empire – The Ghana Empire in West Africa is thriving under the Soninke rulers of the Cissé Tounkara Dynasty (name of current ruler unknown) –