1550-1599 A.D. - Henry VIII & The Ming Dynasty

Intro

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Music

 

1550

KINGS & RULERS: Edward VI is king of England (13 years old) – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 8 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I (not yet queen of England) turns 17 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

The Dean of Christ Church in Oxford, hoping to purge the English church of all Catholicism including “superstitious books and images” removed all books out of Duke Humfrey’s library in Oxford

 

1551

KINGS & RULERS: Edward VI is king of England (14 years old) – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 9 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Süleyman (The Magnificent) swells his empire with conquests in Hungary, the Balkans and central Europe, North Africa, where Tripoli falls to him in this year (The Middle Sea 267)

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 18 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1552

KINGS & RULERS: Edward VI is king of England (turns 15 years old on October 12) – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 10 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

May 26, Sebastian Münster dies in Basel of the plague (b. 1488), he is best known for his book Cosmographia, the first book to give a detailed explanation of the cultures, cities and maps of Europe (with a major emphasis on Germany, since that was where he was from)

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 19 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1553  

KINGS & RULERS: Edward VI of England dies, aged 15, at Greenwich Palace on July 6, he is buried beneath the alter in the chapel at Westminster Abbey, there is no headstone, and Lady Jane Grey (the nine days Queen) is proclaimed queen on July 10, but is deposed on July 19 and Mary I (the daughter of Henry VIII) ascends the throne of England – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 11 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 20 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1554 

KINGS & RULERS: Mary I is queen of England – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 12 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

February 12, Lady Jane Grey is executed, aged 16

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 21 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1555  

KINGS & RULERS: Mary I is queen of England – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 13 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Nostradamus publishes his book, Les Propheties, of 942 poetic quatrains allegedly predicting future events

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 22 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1556  

KINGS & RULERS: Mary I is queen of England – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 14 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) until January 16 when his brother, Ferdinand I takes over as Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V doesn’t die until 1558), Ferdinand I is also King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Duke Humfrey’s library is taken over by the Faculty of Medicine 

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 23 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1557

KINGS & RULERS: Mary I is queen of England – Mary Queen of Scots (turns 15 years old on December 14) is being brought up at the French Court, Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Ferdinand I (House of Habsburg 4) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 24 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1558

KINGS & RULERS: Queen Mary I dies on November 17 and Elizabeth I becomes queen of England – Mary Queen of Scots marries François, son of Henri II of France and heir to the French throne, at Notre Dame (she has no children with him), she turns 16 on December 14 Scotland is in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise – Ferdinand I (House of Habsburg 4) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Henry II is king of France – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 25 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1559

KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is officially crowned as Queen of England on January 15 at Westminster Abbey – Ferdinand I (House of Habsburg 4) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) /Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

September 7, Elizabeth I turns 26 years old

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1560  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Ferdinand I

(House of Habsburg 4) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anastasia Romanovna is tsarina until August 7 – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

– The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

– August 7, Tsar Ivan IV’s wife Anastasia Romanovna dies and Ivan suspects she was poisoned by the Boyars; She died aged 29 or 30, leaving behind six children, Anna, Maria, Dmitry, Ivan, Eudoxia, and Feodor (Feodor would become the next Russian tsar)

– September 7, Elizabeth I turns 27 years old

– Between 1560 and 1650, Germany unleashes a great witch hunt, in which magistrates put to death as many as 30,000 witches, 80 percent of them women, many of these following bad harvests and the plague, “Of course, persecutions always pitted neighbor against neighbor, so that it seemed to one witness that ‘there is no friendship on this earth.’” (Germany, A Nation in its Time 60-61)

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1561  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Ferdinand I

(House of Habsburg 4) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

– The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)  

– August 21, Tsar Ivan IV marries Maria Temryukovna (and immediately regrets it, but they stay married until 1569 when Maria dies)

– September 7, Elizabeth I turns 28 years old

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1562  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Ferdinand I

(House of Habsburg 4) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

– The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy continues in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

– September 7, Elizabeth I turns 29 years old

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1563  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Ferdinand I

(House of Habsburg 4) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia – Philip II is king of Spain, the Spanish colonies in South America, Central America and North America, including Florida, as well as other Habsburg lands such at the Netherlands – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

– The Council of Trent, held in Trent, northern Italy ends, it was held in response to the Protestant Revolution (1545-1563)

– April 23, the foundation stone is laid for El Escorial after King Philip II of Spain orders a royal palace/monastery be built not far from the hamlet of El Escorial, about 28 miles outside of Madrid; The palace itself will be called El Escorial (it is still in use in the present day), Philip II is part of the counter-Reformation, he is against Martin Luther’s writings and teachings

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 30 years old

– November, Juan Bautista de Toledo, the lead architect on Philip II’s palace/monastery, El Escorial, receives news that his wife and children, who were sailing from Naples to be with him, have been captured by Turkish corsairs, to escape his grief Toledo throws himself into the work of building (Spain, the Center of the World 131)

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1564  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Ferdinand I

(House of Habsburg 4), Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy (Romans), Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, dies, and his son, Maximilian II becomes Holy Roman Emperor (Habsburg 5) – Philip II is king of Spain (Habsburg) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

– February 15, Galileo Galilei is born (d. 1642), in Pisa, Italy

– April 26, Shakespeare is born (d. 1616), in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England

– Work continues on El Escorial, the royal palace/monastery in Spain on order of King Phillip II of Spain

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 31 years old

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1565 – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Mary (Queen of Scots)

is queen of Scotland – Charles IX is king of France (1560-1574) – Phillip II is king of Spain (he had been married to Mary I of England until her death in 1558, he is also the namesake of the Phillipines) (1556-1598) – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Italy and king of Germany (or literally the “king of the Teutons” according to Wikipedia) (1564-1576) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China – Nanacacipactzin, the last Aztec king of the city Tenochtitlan and the Aztec Empire dies (he had been installed by Spanish authorities)

– Mary Queen of Scots marries her second husband, Henry, Lord Darnley, son of Matthew Stewart 4th earl of Lennox, at Holyrood House (she has one son with him)

– Work continues on El Escorial, the royal palace/monastery in Spain on order of King Phillip II of Spain

– February 15, Galileo Galilei turns one year old

– April 26, Shakespeare turns one year old

– King Philip II of Spain sends Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, an able seaman and devout Catholic, to rid Florida of the twin threats of French encroachment and Protestant (or Luteranos in Spanish) heresy; Enroute, all 17 ships that left Cadiz encounter a fierce storm, and only two ships arrive safely in Puerto Rico; Here, he is able to obtain three more ships; He then heads north 

– August 28, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés’ ships first sight Cape Canaveral on the feast day of St. Augustine of Hippo (this is 55 years before the Mayflower)  “Spain was the first to establish a European settlement in North America—St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565. Its initial colonial efforts had been focused on Mexico and Peru, where there was gold to acquire and empires to conquer. The Spanish were penned into Florida by the growth of English colonies to the north and the arrival of the French in New Orleans to the west in 1718.” (A History of the World, Map by Map 152-153) (in present day St. Augustine, there stands a tall cross to mark the spot where the Spanish landed and knelt and prayed)

– August 28, five French ships commanded by Captain Jean Ribault arrived at Fort Caroline on St. John’s River with reinforcements, 28 miles north of where the Spanish are about to settle in St (Fort San Marcos National Parks Service guide)

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 32 years old

– September 8, Pedro Menéndez founds a town near the little Timucuan Native American village, and names his settlement St. Augustine after the saint honored in the church calendar on August 28, the day he spotted land (Fort San Marcos National Parks Service guide)

– As the Spanish build St. Augustine, the French at Fort Caroline are plotting an attack against them (Fort San Marcos National Parks Service guide)

– September 11, the French Captain Jean Ribault takes 500 men in five ships and sets out from Fort Caroline to go attack St, Augustine against the advice of Laudonnière who warns him of storms and a possible Spanish attack; A storm does come up and whips them down the coast southwards out of control just before they are about to attack St. Augustine 

– The Spanish colonies in America were a drain on Spain’s finances until they discovered silver deposits back in 1545 in Potosí, present day Bolivia, and at Zacatecas in Mexico

– The largest burial site of child sacrifices in the world (the skeletal remains of 227 children will begin to be found in 2016) lay just outside of Lima, Peru, they were buried around sometime between 665 to 90 years ago during the Chimu period, a pre-Columbian society that thrived between the years 900-1475, when it was conquered by the Inca, the bodies lie facing the Pacific Ocean near a port that had been favored at the time, “The mass grave tells a grim tale. The lead excavator says that the site is similar to nearby burial grounds where large groups of children were interred after they were marched to the coast and stabbed in the chest one by one, the victims are estimated to be 4 and 14 years old when they were killed, and some of the bodies still had traces of skin and hair. He also says the children were likely a sacrifice to the gods that controlled the El Nino phenomenon.” (Inside Edition 2020)

– The Spanish conquest of the Inca in South America continues (1532-1572) (Wikipedia)

– The Spanish Conquest of the Maya continues (1527-1697), (A History of the World, Map by Map 156-157)

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1566  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Charles IX is king of

France – Phillip II is king of Spain – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Italy and king of Germany (or literally the “king of the Teutons” – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China –

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 33 years old

– Nostradamus dies in Salon-de-Provence, France

– Work continues on El Escorial, the royal palace/monastery in Spain on order of King Phillip II of Spain

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1567  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Albert, of the

House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina – Jiajing, emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, dies and Longqing becomes emperor

– January 23, Jiajing, emperor of the Ming dynasty in china, dies and is buried in the Yongling Mausoleum, Ming tombs, Bejing

– February 4, Longqing is crowned emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 34 years old

– Sir John Thynne’s first house at Longleat in Wiltshire burns to the ground, but he begins rebuilding it immediately, Thynne created England’s first house in the Italianate, or Renaissance, style. Longleat’s façade incorporated the first three classical “orders” or column styles of and ancient Greece and Rome: the Doric, the Iconic and the Corinthian (CPSH 120 - 121)

– Work continues on El Escorial, the royal palace/monastery in Spain on order of King Phillip II of Spain, the main architect dies (possibly from stress) and his chief draughtsman, Juan de Herrera becomes chief architect

– Mary Queen of Scots marries her third husband, James, earl of Bothwell, at Holyrood House (she only has stillborn twins with him)

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1568  – Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House

of Jagiellon, is king of Poland Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, Duke of the newly established hereditary realm of Prussia, dies on March 20 and his son Albert Frederick becomes the second Duke of Prussia (Ansbach and Hohenzollern family) Prussia is part of Poland at this point – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina   

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 35 years old

– Philipp Apian depicts all of Bavaria (German lands) in his Bavarian Panels,

a set of 24 sheets beautifully showing off the cities, forests, mountains and rivers he surveyed over six or seven summers (GNT 50-51)

1569  – Elizabeth I is queen of England – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House of

Jagiellon, is king of Poland – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia, which is part of Poland (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Temryukovna is tsarina until

– September 1, Tsarina Maria Temryukovna, dies, aged 25, leaving Ivan IV a widower once again

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 36 years old

– Bess of Hardwick (who is currently married to the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury who lives at Chatsworth House) joins Mary Queen of Scots, who is being held captive at the house, for the first time, and the two begin to work on the Oxburgh Hangings together (these now hang in the King’s Room of Oxburgh Hall in Norfolk, England) (Wikipedia)   

Mercator creates his famous map of the world, “which still influences our sense of the shape of the planet to this day” (GNT 52)

1570  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Charles IX is king of

France – Phillip II is king of Spain – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor/German Emperor – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House of Jagiellon, is king of Poland – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia, which is part of Poland (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/no tsarina – St. Pius V is pope

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 37 years old

– Bess of Hardwick (who is currently married to the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury who lives at Chatsworth House) once again joins Mary Queen of Scots, who is being held captive at the house, and the two continue to work on the Oxburgh Hangings together (these now hang in the King’s Room of Oxburgh Hall in Norfolk, England) (Wikipedia)   

The first atlas is compiled by Abraham Ortelius, a mapmaker in Antwerp, Belgium, which is still part of the Holy Roman Empire, right now; Ortelius assembled cartography’s best and brightest to create the atlas, they comprised of astronomers, clergymen, medical doctors, mathematicians, artists, and seafarers, they were Catholics from Italy, Calvinists from the Netherlands, and Lutherans (including Mercator) from Germany, but because of the Reformation, “Not a few of them were on the run. Some…fled Flanders for the Rhineland; others…escaped to East Frisia, and still others…fled to England.” Still, even with all the persecution, the atlas turns out to be a great success, entitled Theater of the World, its first edition has 53 sheets, but by its 1612 edition, it will have 164 sheets (Germany, A Nation in its Time 53)

                        – “Between 1570 and 1648, the German lands went from a place of

flourishing learning to a decimated ruin,” this is due to the Protestant-Catholic

religious “Thirty Years War,” some lands will lose almost half their population to

fighting, famine and plague (Germany, A Nation in its Time 58)

– Witch hunts in Germany continue, they will reach their height between 1585-1635 (Germany, A Nation in its Time 60) 

[TOP SOIL:]

1571  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Charles IX is king of

France – Phillip II is king of Spain – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor/German Emperor – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House of Jagiellon, is king of Poland – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia, which is part of Poland (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Marfa Sobakina is tsarina for sixteen days – St. Pius V is pope

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 38 years old

– October 28, Tsar Ivan IV marries Marfa Sobakina, but she dies sixteen days later of an illness

– Bess of Hardwick (who is currently married to the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury who lives at Chatsworth House) joins Mary Queen of Scots, who is being held captive at the house, for the last time, and the two continue to work on the Oxburgh Hangings together (these now hang in the King’s Room of Oxburgh Hall in Norfolk, England) (Wikipedia)   

                        – [TOP SOIL:]

1572  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Charles IX is king of

France – Phillip II is king of Spain – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor/German Emperor – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House of Jagiellon, is king of Poland – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia, which is part of Poland (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Koltovskaya becomes tsarina – St. Pius V is pope until May 1 when Gregory XIII becomes pope

– August 23-24, Paris: The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre—Catholic mob violence directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) takes place; King Charles IX orders the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders and the massacre spreads, the death toll estimates range anywhere from 5,000 to 30,000 (Germany, A Nation in Her Time 49)

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 39 years old

– The map Cities of the World is published; Created by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg, it is unlike Ortelius’ Theater of the World map in 1570, which shows only nations in relation to each other, Braun’s and Hogenberg’s map shows where all the cities are, mainly those in the Roman Empire—although it does show major cities in Ireland, England, Spain, France, Italy and parts of Greece and just a bit of North Africa as well (GNT 55-56)

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

[TOP SOIL:]

1573  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Koltovskaya is tsarina

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 40 years old

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

[TOP SOIL:]

1574  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Koltovskaya is tsarina until Ivan divorces her this year and sends her to a convent

– Galileo Galilei and William Shakespeare both turn 10 years old

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 41 years old

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

[TOP SOIL:]

1575  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Vasilchikova becomes tsarina

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 42 years old

– Queen Elizabeth I stays at Longleat House during her summer progress only eight years after the original house burned to the ground, when she visited, the house was only two stories, the third was probably added after Sir John Thynne’s death in 1580 (CPSH 120)

– Construction begins on the basilica inside El Escorial, Philip II of Spain’s palace 28 miles outside of Madrid, it would become a place where one hundred Hieronymite monks would spend 8 hours a day singing hymns and praying for the Habsburg souls, “From the outset, Philip wanted this supreme statement about Habsburg and Spanish piety to express the new orthodoxy of the Council of Trent.” (Spain, the Center of the World 1519-1628 139)

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

[TOP SOIL:]

1576  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Vasilchikova is tsarina until Ivan divorces her this year and sends her to a convent

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 43 years old

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1577  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/no tsarina

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 44 years old

– “According to William Harrison, an Essex clergyman writing in 1577, the Elizabethan builder, ‘desireth to set his house aloft on a hill, to be seen afar off, and cast his beams of stately and curious workmanship into every quarter of the country.’” Many of the great houses in England are being built at this time, it is both a collaboration and a competition between the nobility, Queen Elizabeth I had pretty much handed off the building craze to her subjects, as her father, King Henry VIII built so many royal houses she really didn’t need to build anything herself (Devices and Desires, Bess of Hardwick and the Building of Elizabethan England Intro)

– The library at Longleat House in Wiltshire, England, is greatly expanded by Sir John Thynne’s uncle, William, a clerk in Henry VIII’s kitchens, and by this year, it holds 85 books and manuscripts—a large number for that time; Today, there are eight libraries, including the beautiful Bishop Ken’s library, which runs on the top floor along the entire east front of the house (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland 121)

– Sir Francis Drake has been introduced to Elizabeth by this time and she unofficially encourages his activities against Spain; In December, Drake sets off on what will become his voyage around the world (the first Englishman to do so), plundering both Spanish vessels and possessions in South America and the East Indies; It has been estimated that the total value of Drake’s booty was worth about 450,000 pounds, which would be many millions at today’s rates (British Kings and Queens 257)

– The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1578  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/no tsarina

– On April 1, William Harvey, an English physician, is born in Folkestone, Kent, (he is the one that will discover that the blood pumping from the heart actually circulates back to the heart) (d. 1657)

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 45 years old

– The Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1579  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Vasilisa Melentyeva is tsarina (possibly? Not many records of her), but she is discovered as having an affair this same year and is sent to a convent

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 46 years old

– Father Francis Fletcher, chaplain on the Golden Hinde writes of Natives in Bodega Bay, California  

– The Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

1580  KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king

of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/no tsarina

Baroque era begins (approx.)

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 47 years old

– Galileo Galilei and William Shakespeare both turn 16 years old

– Sir Francis Drake returns to England after spending three years of plundering Spanish vessels, he becomes a national hero

1581  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Albert Fredrick is

Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Nagaya is tsarina

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 48 years old

– Sir Francis Drake (Queen Elizabeth’s pirate against the Spanish) is knighted

                        – In this year, Tsar Ivan IV suggests to Queen Elizabeth I of England that he

can divorce his wife and marry her, but those plans never materialize

1582  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Albert Fredrick is

Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Nagaya is tsarina

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 49 years old

1583  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Albert Fredrick is

Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Nagaya is tsarina

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 50 years old

1584  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is queen of England – Albert Fredrick is Duke

of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) until March 28 when he dies and his son, Feodor I becomes tsar/Maria Nagaya is tsarina (until March 28)

– March 28, Tsar Ivan IV dies and his son Feodor I becomes tsar

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 51 years old

– Galileo Galilei and William Shakespeare both turn 20 years old

– Queen Elizabeth I grants a charter for Sir Walter Raleigh to explore, colonize, and rule any “remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince of inhabited by Christian People,” in return for one-fifth of all the gold and silver that might be mined there, the charter says he has seven years to establish a settlement or else lose the right to do so (Raleigh himself never visited North America)

1585  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Albert Fredrick is

Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 52 years old

1586  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

 

– June 6, Sir Francis Drake raids St. Augustine, Florida, burning it, and driving surviving Spanish settlers into the wilderness, however he doesn’t have sufficient forces or authority to establish an English settlement, so he leaves the area

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 53 years old

– “Witchcraft accusations suggested that a general crisis was near, and contemporaries, who assumed that history could easily be reversed, sensed the impending catastrophe. ‘Darkness and barbarism threaten and are spreading across the beautiful land of Europe,’ wrote humanist chronicler Marcus Welser in a 1586 letter to his friend Justus Lipsius.” Justus Lipsius is a professor at the University of Leiden, in present day South Holland, Netherlands, he is best known for his painstaking edition of Tacitus (Germany, A Nation in its Time 61)

 

1587  

KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 8, Mary Queen of Scots is executed at Fotheringhay castle

February 15, Galileo Galilei turns 23 (d. 1642)

April 26, William Shakespeare turns 23 (d. 1616)

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 54

The first man of the future German arms company, Arndt Krupp, shows up in the records of Essen, Germany (This family goes on to provide much of the weaponry for WWI and WWII) (The Arms of Krupp, Pg. 23)  

 

1588 

KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 15, Galileo Galilei turns 24 (d. 1642)

April 26, William Shakespeare turns 24 (d. 1616)

July 29, The Spanish Armada (fleet of war ships) sights the most southerly part of England, “As the Armada sailed on, warning beacons burst into flame along the clifftops, conveying the news to the English fleet, massed at Plymouth, that the Spaniard had been sighted.” Phillip II of Spain had sent the Armada after the English had been plundering their ships and burning their settlements, like St. Augustine in Florida a couple of years ago, “Ironically enough,…while king-consort to Queen Mary, Philip II had advised the Privy Council to strength the navy as England’s best line of defense, so there were 197 ships at anchor in Plymouth harbor.” (Spain, the Center of the World 1519-1682  235)

Philip II of Spain, who had once been king-consort of England (having been married to the late Queen Elizabeth I’s sister, Queen Mary) is living in his grand palace/monastery called El Escorial, which is just outside of Madrid, there he awaits to hear news of his Armada’s victory (hopefully) 

July 31, at daybreak, the Spanish sighted the main body of English ships bearing down on them

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 55

William Harvey (1578-1657), the English physician who discovered blood circulated from and back to the heart, starts attending the King’s School in Canterbury (until 1593)

 

1589 

KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 15, Galileo Galilei turns 25 (d. 1642)

April 26, William Shakespeare turns 25 (d. 1616)

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 56

 

1590 

 KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 57 years old

                        – November 18, the Earl of Shrewsbury, Elizabeth “Bess” Hardwick’s

husband dies

– November 21, the foundation on Bess Hardwick’s new home, Hardwick Hall, is complete, Hardwick Hall is not her first building project, she had worked on Chatsworth for 30 years (Devices and Desires, Bess of Hardwick and the Building of Elizabethan England  Intro)

1591  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

– September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 58 years old

1592  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

1593  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

– William Harvey (1578-1657), leaves the King’s School in Canterbury and goes to study arts and medicine at Gonville and Caius College in Cambridge (until 1599)

1594  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

– Galileo Galilei and William Shakespeare both turn 30 years old

1595  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

1596  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

1597  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

– Shakespeare’s play, Romeo and Juliet, premiers, he is 33 years old

1598  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of

Spain until September 13 when his son Phillip III becomes king – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia until he dies on January 17 and his wife Irina Godunova becomes Tsarina 

– January 17, Tsar Feodor I dies in Moscow, aged 40, without leaving behind an heir to the throne, so with him dies the centuries old Rurik dynasty, and begins the “Time of Troubles,” Feodor is buried in the Archangel Cathedral, Kremlin, Feodor’s wife, Irina becomes the tsarina, but her right to the throne is disputed, and Russia is plunged into a time of anarchy and lawlessness, it will only end with the ascension of Michael I of the House of Romanov in 1613 (Wikipedia)

– Duke Humfrey’s library is refurbished by Thomas Bodley

1599  – KINGS & RULERS: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Albert Fredrick is

Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family)

– Shakespeare’s play, Julius Caesar, premiers, he also writes his play, Hamlet, somewhere between this year and 1601

– William Harvey (1578-1657) leaves Cambridge and goes to study at the University of Padua, the leading medical school in Europe, there he becomes the student of Italian anatomist and surgeon Hieronymous Fabricius, who will have a considerable influence on Harvey

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