1500-1529 A.D. - Isabella I of Castile & The Beginnings of Prussia

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1500

ROYALTY & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England – No Holy Roman/German Emperor – Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

“Around 1500, travelers still used itineraries, not maps, to plan trips and in order to orient themselves. Often rolled up in copper canisters, they listed places in sequence and were written, not drawn...The number of printed maps in the core countries of Europe posit one map per every 720 persons in 1500, and one for every 4 persons a century later, with most maps, roughly two-thirds of the total, portraying the countries and regions of the continent. These maps reshaped people’s sense of space as surely as the proliferation of texts altered the practice of reading.” (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 6, 53)

In Nuremberg, the first genuinely accurate, scaled map of Germany is made by Erhard Etzlaub, the map is called “Rome-Way Map” (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 20-21)

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 28 years old, he is living in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights

June 28, The future King Henry VIII of England turns 8

 

 

1501

ROYALTY & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England/Elizabeth of York is queen – No Holy Roman/German Emperor – Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536) writes his book The Handbook for the Christian Knight (which is published in 1533 by William Tyndale)

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 29 years old, he is living in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 9 years old

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England is born in Blickling Hall, Norfolk England (reports vary, she may have been born anywhere between 1501-1505, but for the purposes of this timeline, we’re going with 1501)

August 17, Catherine of Aragon, princess of Spain, sets sail for England to marry the English prince Arthur at 15 years old

November 4, Catherine of Aragon meets Prince Arthur at Dogmersfield in Hampshire, England 

November 14, 15 year old Catherine of Aragon, princess of Spain marries 15 year old Arthur, prince of England, in Old Saint Paul’s Cathedral in London (his brother, 9 year old Henry, is in the audience, he will become Catherine’s second husband and King Henry VIII) (Photo: Portrait of a woman thought to be a young Catherine of Aragon painted sometime between 1500-1505, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

After marrying Catherine of Aragon, Prince Arthur is sent to Ludlow Castle in Wales to preside over the Council of Wales and the Marches, as is his duty as Prince of Wales; Catherine goes with him, a few months later, they both become ill, possibly with the sweating sickness, which is sweeping the area (Wikipedia)

 

 

1502

ROYALTY & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England/Elizabeth of York is queen – No Holy Roman/German Emperor – Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order – Moctezuma II becomes the Aztec Emperor in Mexico (rules 1502-1520)

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 30 years old, he is living in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights

April 2, Prince Arthur of England dies, leaving 16 year old Catherine of Aragon a widow

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 10 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 1

 

 

1503

ROYALTY & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England / Elizabeth of York is queen until February 11 – No Holy Roman/German Emperor – Moctezuma II is the Aztec Emperor in Mexico

Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

Leonardo da Vinci completes his painting of the Mona Lisa

February 11, Elizabeth of York, Queen of England, dies at the Tower of London, aged 37 (b. 1466)  

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 31 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, but this year he goes to university in Italy, the University of Padua

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 11

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England, turns 2

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, is born in Saint-Remy-de-Provence

 

 

1504

ROYALTY & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England – No Holy Roman/German Emperor – Isabella I, Queen of Castile and Queen consort of Aragon dies and her daughter Juana I/ Joanna I succeeds her, but she is known as Joanna “the mad” and is quickly declared unfit to rule, so her father, Ferdinand V of Aragon begins reigning as King of Castile and Aragon (even though he had no right to rule Castile after his wife, Isabella I, died) – Moctezuma II is the Aztec Emperor in Mexico

Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 32 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, right now he is at the University of Padua in Italy

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 12 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 3 

November 26, Isabella I, Queen of Castile, dies, aged 53 (b.1451), thus making her daughter, Catherine of Aragon’s “value” on the marriage market less favorable, as Catherine’s older sister, Joanna I, inherits the kingdom of Castile, and her father’s kingdom of Aragon is much smaller; However it is arranged that she will marry Arthur’s younger brother, Henry, when he comes of age; Until then, she is “kept like a prisoner” in Durham House in London (Wikipedia) (Photo: Portrait of Joanna I "the mad," painted some time between 1496-1500, Credit: Wikimedia Commons) (I think she looks very much like her sister, Catherine!)

 

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 1

 

 

1505

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England – No Holy Roman/German Emperor – Joanna I “the mad” of Castile is declared unfit to rule and her father Ferdinand V of Aragon continues to reign as both King of Castile and Aragon in Spain

Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 33 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, right now he is at the University of Padua in Italy

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 13

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 4

October 29, A portrait is painted of King Henry VII of England, the inscription at the bottom says that it was ordered by an agent of Maximilian I, King of the Romans and soon to be Holy Roman Emperor in 1508; It is thought that this portrait was part of an unsuccessful attempt at a marriage proposal, as Henry was hoping to take Maximilian's daughter, Margaret of Savoy, as his second wife; This portrait now hang's in the National Portrait Gallery in London (Photo Credit: National Portrait Gallery)

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 2

 

1506

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England – No Holy Roman/German Emperor

Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

Construction on St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome begins (now is part of the Vatican City buildings) 

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 34 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 14 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 5

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 3 

 

 

1507

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England/no queen – No Holy Roman/German Emperor

Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 35 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, right now he is at the University of Padua in Italy

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 15 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 6

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 4

 

 

1508

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VII is king of England/no queen – Maximilian I becomes the Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany until 1519 (note: he is the second Holy Roman Emperor from the House of Habsburg 

Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

“As the sojourns (1486 - 1519) of Emperor Maximilian I reveal, his empire was a riverine realm, centered in the south and west, in which retreat to the safeguards of the high elevations remained a strategic necessity. Far from controlling the peripheries of the Empire, the Emperor never even saw them. Especially the north and east remained out of his reach and beyond his grasp. Within the area conventionally considered Germany, there were some four thousand towns, most of them small, with populations barely reaching beyond 2000 people. There were also cities, like Prague, Cologne, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Strasburg, Lübeck, and Vienna, all of which boasted populations over 25,000.” (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 14)

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 36 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, right now he is at the University of Padua in Italy

June 28, the future King Henry VIII of England turns 16 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 7

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 5 

 

 

1509

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VII, king of England dies and Henry VIII ascends the English throne – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany

Fredrick of Saxony is Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, Poland, the land of the Teutonic Order

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 37 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, right now he is at the University of Padua in Italy

April 21, Henry VII dies and is buried in Westminster Abbey 

June 11, Henry VIII (almost 17 years old) marries Catherine of Aragon (now 23 years old), daughter of Queen Isabella I (who died five years ago) and King Ferdinand V (consort) of Spain; Catherine had been married to Henry’s younger brother Arthur in 1501, but he died five months after they were married, Catherine and Henry will have five children, four of which die, the one that survives will be Mary, who will later become Queen Mary I; Henry and Catherine will divorce in 1533 

June 24, Henry VIII is crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 17

July 15, John Calvin, who becomes a French theologian, and one of the founders of the system of Christian theology known as Calvinism, is born in Noyon, Picardi, France; He will also be a reformer in the Protestant Reformation in Geneva, Romandy (the mostly french-speaking part of Switzerland) 

A portrait is painted of Henry VIII (Photo: Henry in the year 1509, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Anne Boleyn, The future wife of King Henry VIII of England (after he divorces Catherine) turns 8

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 6 

 

 

1510

Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon is queen – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany

Hebraist Johannes Reuchlin in Germany defends Jewish books against imperial efforts to confiscate them on the grounds that they impeded the conversion of Jews to Christianity (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 38)

Erasmus, a Catholic priest and Dutch philosopher who is considered one to the greatest scholars of the northern Renaissance, writes a letter to Hebraist Johannes Reuchlin, using the phrase “our Germany,” so definitely around this time people in the German lands are starting to feel more nationalistic; Erasmus’ letter also had anti-Jewish sentiments, like many humanists, Erasmus conceived of Judaism as hostile to a Christianity that emphasized the New Testament over the Old, and good works over ritual and law, “he also had little empathy for the plight of the Jews” (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 28)

Jewish people are being expelled from many cities across Germany or, as in Frankfurt am Main, they are packed into ghettos with their rights curtailed (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 38)     

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 38 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, right now he is at the University of Padua in Italy

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 18 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 9

December 14, Fredrick of Saxony, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, dies, aged 37, and Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, becomes Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

Albert of Prussia (1490-1568) becomes the Grand Master of the Teutonic knights (reign ends in 1525 (Note: the epithet “of Prussia” came later, right now he is only Albert of the House of Hohenzollern); As Albert takes over the Order of the Teutonic Knights, the House of Hohenzollern will now have access to the secrets and militant methods of the Order, “So impressed by the brutal ways the Teutonic Knights ruled and controlled its ‘deplorable’ pagan peoples, the Hohenzollern decided to name their growing empire after the lands the knights conquered. Not Zollern (where they had originated), Nuremberg, Brandenburg, or even ‘Teutonia.’ They chose the name Prussia; the land that was conquered. This is an important part of the history of the Kingdom of Prussia because it lays out the ‘ideology’ that was adopted by the Hohenzollern dynasty. In turn, this established their methods of rule, right up to the end of WWI. In the spirit of the Teutonic Knights, they placed themselves on a permanent war footing.” (Wikipedia and prussiagate.substack.com)

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 7 

 

 

1511

Henry VIII is king of England – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 39 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 19 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 10 

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 8 

 

 

1512

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catherine of Aragon is queen – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany, and beginning this year, his Empire will also include the Burgundian State (Netherlands)

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

The Imperial Diet of Cologne takes place in which for the first time, the area of Germania is referred to as “the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation,” thereafter, “in the course of the sixteenth century, ‘Germany’ was often heard in political parlance, In its nominative form, according to the German Dictionary of the Brothers Grimm, it denoted the area where German-speaking people lived.” (GNT 13)

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 40 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights

March 5, Gerardus Mercator is born in Rupelmonde, County of Flanders (modern day Belgium) a fiefdom of the Habsburg (Spanish Royalty) Netherlands, he becomes a great geographer, cartographer and cosmographer, and is best known for his 1569 world map that used “rhumb lines” which allow sailors to sail in straight lines (these lines are still used in today’s nautical charts), his family moves almost immediately after his birth to Gangelt in the Holy Roman Duchy of Jülich (modern day Germany), (d. 1594) (read Mercator, by Nicholas Crane)

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 20 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 11

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 9 

Burgundy (now the Netherlands), from which many of the Kings of France have come, becomes part of the Holy Roman Empire (Wikipedia, The Burgundian State)

 

 

1513

Henry VIII is king of England – James IV, king of Scotland dies at Flodden Field on September 9, it’s possible that he is buried at Sheen Abbey, though his exact resting place is not known, James V is crowned king of Scotland at Stirling castle on September 21 – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 41 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 1 year old, he’s living in Gangelt in the Holy Roman Duchy of Jülich (modern day Germany)

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 21

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 12

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 10

 

 

1514

Henry VIII is king of England – King James V is king of Scotland – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany –

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 42 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, this year he proposes a model of the solar system where the sun is stationary and the planets rotate around it (Photo: Copernicus Monument in Toruń, Poland, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

    

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 2 years old, he’s living in Gangelt in the Holy Roman Duchy of Jülich (modern day Germany) (Mercator)

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 22 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 13

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 11

 

 

1515

Henry VIII is king of England – King James V is king of Scotland – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany – Louis XII dies and his first cousin, Francis I, becomes king of France

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 43 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he proposed the sun is stationary and the planets orbit around it just last year

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 3 years old, he’s living in Gangelt in the Holy Roman Duchy of Jülich (modern day Germany)

June 28 (or possibly September 22), Anne of Cleves (future wife of King Henry VIII, but only for 6 months in 1540) is born in Düsseldorf, Duchy of Berg, Kingdom of Germany, Holy Roman Empire  

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 23 

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 15 

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 12 

 

1516

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon (her nephew, Charles V becomes king of Spain this year) – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V becomes king of Spain (Aragon and Castile), he’s a Habsburg (he will later become Holy Roman Emperor, his grandfather, Max, is Holy Roman Emperor right now) – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany – Francis I is king of France

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 18, the future Queen Mary I is born to Henry VIII of England and Queen Catharine of Aragon, it is of note that Charles V, king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) is her cousin, and he will become Holy Roman Emperor when she is 3 years old

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 44 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 4 years old, he’s living Gangelt in the Holy Roman Duchy of Jülich (modern day Germany)

June 28 (or possibly September 22), Anne of Cleves (future wife of King Henry VIII, but only for 6 months in 1540) turns 1 year old

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 24 years old

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 16 years old

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 13 years old

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

Ottoman period in Babylon (modern day Iraq begins)

 

 

1517

Henry VIII is on the English throne – King James V is on the Scottish throne –Charles V is king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany – Francis I is king of France

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 1

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 45 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 5 years old, he’s living in Gangelt in the Holy Roman Duchy of Jülich (modern day Germany)

June 28 (or possibly September 22), Anne of Cleves (future wife of King Henry VIII, but only for 6 months in 1540) turns 2 years old

June 28, King Henry VIII of England turns 25 years old, he has one child, Mary I, and is marries to Catherine of Aragon

Anne Boleyn, future wife of King Henry VIII of England turns 17

October 31, the Protestant Reformation begins when Martin Luther, a German Monk, nails his 95 Theses to the doors of churches in Wittenberg, Germany (remember still no Bible translated into a common tongue yet), “On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther sent a letter to Albrecht of Brandenburg, the Archbishop of Mainz. In this letter, which contained the famous 95 theses, Luther railed against indulgences, purchasable single-sheet documents that supposedly remitted sins. Whether Luther also nailed the theses to the door of the Court Church at Wittenberg remains a subject of historical debate. What we are certain of is that Luther’s criticisms centered fundamentally on the idea that God’s grace is granted and received through faith along, not good works or the intercession of priests.” (GNT 31)

December 14, Nostradamus, the French astrologer, turns 14

End of the Islamic Mamluk Empire as they are incorporated into the Ottoman empire  

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

 

1518

Henry VIII is on the English throne/Catharine of Aragon is queen – King James V is on the Scottish throne – Charles V is king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany – Francis I is king of France

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

– On February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 2 years old

– On February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 46 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

– On March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 6 years old, his family moves from Gangelt in the Holy Roman Duchy of Jülich (modern day Germany), back to the County of Flounders (Belgium)

The Protestant Reformation in Germany/Holy Roman Empire continues

– Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

1519

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is on the English throne/Catherine of Aragon is Queen (daughter of Queen Isabella I of Castile (died back in 1594) and King Ferdinand of Aragon (died back in 1516), Catherine’s nephew is Charles V, who becomes Holy Roman Emperor this year – King James V is on the Scottish throne – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans (Italy) and King of Germany, dies, and his grandson, Charles V (a Habsburg, third one to become Emperor) is elected as Holy Roman Emperor (through lots of payouts, there are seven electors), king of Germany, Archduke of Austria and king of Italy, he is still king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Francis I is king of France

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

In February, eight months before Cortés’s men land with their fabulous Mexican treasure, news reaches King Charles V of Spain in Barcelona of the death of his grandfather, the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, leader of a vast confederation of states and principalities in northern and central Europe from Holland in the north to parts of France in the west, parts of modern Italy in the south, most of modern Germany and parts of Austria and Hungary to the east; But the Holy Roman Empire was an uneasy alliance of provincial rulers under the centralizing stewardship of an emperor who was himself chosen by seven Electors: three bishops, three princes of the Empire and the King of Bohemia (SCW 13) 

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 3

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 47 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 7 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands

The Protestant Reformation in Germany/Holy Roman Empire continues

May 2, Leonardo da Vinci, the Italian polymath, dies at the Chateau du Close Luce, Amboise, France, aged 67 (b. 1452)

June 28, as Cortés is marveling as the great discs if gold and silver on the edge of Charles’s western Empire (Spanish America) the historic Habsburg heartland, the Electors are in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle in French) and agree unanimously to choose Charles V, king of Spain, as their new ruler, Emperor Charles V (SCW 14)

Between June and October, Cortés sails back from Spanish America to Spain, he is anxious to show Charles V all the treasure he has amassed for the crown

October, a lone carrack sails into the harbor at Sanlúcar, the great Atlantic port of southern Spain, it is All Souls’ Day, Halloween…The little Santa María is the first ship to reach Europe from the newly settled shores of Mexico; food and water are brought aboard and a handful of men come ashore; word no doubt is spreading through the town about the six Totonac Indian aristocrats among the passengers; but there is even more excited speculation over rumors of an infinite amount of gold on board, so much indeed that there was no other ballast than gold…As required by law, the ship proceeds up the olive-green River Guadalquivir that flows through the wild salt marshes, pine forests and fruit orchards of the fertile valley that was once known to medieval Arab poets as “paradise” on earth (SCW 7)

November 5, the Santa Maria reaches the provincial capital at Seville and draws up against the muddy riverbank, the port is dominated by the defensive towers and ramparts of the medieval fortifications built in the ninth century by the moors to repel the Vikings (SCW 8)

Magellan begins his around-the-world voyage

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

A portrait is painted of Holy Roman Emperor, King of the Romans, Maximilian I; Notice the crest in the upper left hand corner, the double-headed black bird is the same as the Prussian Empire, as well as the German Empire during World War II; Sometimes the bird has only one head, but it's always that same black bird; Also notice the lamb hanging from the bottom of the crest, this denotes "The Order of the Golden Fleece," and if you keep your eyes open, you'll start noticing it many places, even in the present day! After seeing it on the Spanish fort from 1672 in Florida, I was passing a Brooks Brother's shop in the airport and noticed again as part of their logo! In other words, these symbols are still with us (Photo/Credit: Maximilian I, Wikimedia Commons; Fort St. Marcos in Florida, me; Exterior of Brooks Brothers Store, me)

  

1520

RULERS & KINGS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon is queen – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, he is also crowned King of Germany this year on February 22, he is king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Francis I is king of France – Leo X is pope – Moctezuma II is the Aztec Emperor in Mexico

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 4 years old

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 48 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

The Aztec capital in present day Mexico, is the largest city in pre-Columbian America with a population of at least 300,000 under Moctezuma II’s rule

Charles V, 19 years old and already a Habsburg king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor (since last year), is struggling to keep the province of Castile in Spain, he is unpopular, and the Spaniards do not appreciate the fact that he has placed Flemish people from the Netherlands (also under Habsburg rule) into positions of power to rule aspects of Spain from afar, he goes to Valladolid in Castile and tries to state his case but things go poorly when he has an outburst of bad temper, “Young, badly advised and struggling under the burden of his vast and incoherent dominions, Charles had metaphorically lost his head. It almost cost him Spain.” But Charles V has just received countless gold treasure from the Americas last year, and “Henceforth, the great Habsburg Empire in Europe would depend on that promise of American money; but in Spain, during the first months of 1520, history hung in the balance. Charles still had to hold on to Castile.” (Spain, the Center of the World 1519-1682, Pg. 27)

The Protestant Reformation in Germany/Holy Roman Empire continues

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 8 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands

May 20, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain, sails for England

May 26, Charles V’s fleet is sighted off the coast of Dover, England; Cardinal Wolsey “rushed from Canterbury and set out with two boats to greet the Emperor, ‘accompanied by many noblemen and gentlemen, richly clad in in silk, and wearing massive gold chains,’. They came ashore and Charles was lodged in Dover Castle. Henry VIII arrived late that night and went straight to his ‘nephew’s’ apartment, ‘where they embraced each other familiarly.’” (Spain, the Center of the World 1519-1682, Pg. 27)

June, Pope Leo X issues the Papal bull Exsurge Domine (“Arise, O Lord”) , outlining forty-one purported errors found in Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses and other writings related to or written by him

June 7-24, King Henry VIII meets King Francis I of France at an event that was later dubbed "The Cloth of the Field of Gold" because of the sumptuous tents that were spread over a valley that was subsequently called Val d'Or near Guisnes, south of Calais (Photo: Painting of "The Field of the Cloth of Gold" completed in 1545, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Dying in September of 1520, Selim I (Sultan of Mecca, Egypt and Syria and more) is succeeded by the only male member of his family whom he had left alive on his own accession: his son, Süleyman, then aged 26, is one of the four larger than life monarchs who bestrode the first half of the sixteenth century, the other three being the Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII and Francis I of France, Süleyman is arguably the greatest, he is, in his own way, a son of the Renaissance: a man of learning and wide culture, himself a sensitive poet, under who the imperial pottery workshops of Iznik (Nicaea) are at their most inspired and the imperial architects, above all, the great Sinan, adorned the cities of the empire with mosques and religious foundations, caravanserais and schools, many of which still stand in the present day (The Middle Sea 267)

Pope Leo X threatens to excommunicate Martin Luther (GNT 31)

Martin Luther responds to Pope Leo X with an “open Letter to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, which sold out its four thousand printed copies in only five days, and heralded the beginning of a historic explosion of religious pamphlets, polemics, prayer books, and scripture. In the Letter, Luther addressed the nation, or, more precisely, the Emperor and those noblemen who, as dignitaries of the Holy Roman Empire, provided tribute to Rome. In what must have been shocking rhetoric, he denounced the hierarchical structure of the church, condemned the authority of the pope, and challenged the interpretive monopoly of the Roman Catholic Church with respect to the word of God.” (GNT 32) 

One of the first modern surveys of peoples throughout the world is published, it is titled, The Customs of All Peoples (downloadable book) by a monk of the Teutonic Order named Johannes Boemus, it drew on the fifteenth-century revival of classical literature, especially Lorenzo Valla’s translation of Herodotus into Latin, Boemus likened his account to a travel guide, as “if I faithfully conducted you by hand,” and structured his European material from east to west, with his treatment of Germany in the middle, “Boemus began his depiction of the Germans by repeating the now familiar refrain that Germany had long ago expanded beyond the borders the ancients had assigned to it. He drew from this fact the conclusion that the Germans were shot through with foreign elements. Some were not very civilized, like the Prussians, “A most ferocious and idolatrous people,” while others had contributed to progress, so that, as he wrote, Germany’s ‘most beautiful and brilliant cities, castles, and villages are not even exceeded by those of France, Spain or Italy.’…Uniquely, Boemus paid attention to the everyday life of townspeople and peasants, especially in his native Franconia. He recounted festivities on saints’ days, fasting practices during Lent, and the celebration of carnival, or Fastnacht, in which a general madness possesses the people and causes them to ‘mask their faces, and deceive about their sex and age, the men wearing women’s apparel and the women men’s’” (GNT 35) 

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

1521

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon is queen – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile), he is 21 years old – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Emperor Zhengde of Ming China dies and Jiajing is crowned emperor – Leo X is pope

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

January 28, the Diet of Worms takes place, it is an imperial diet (a formal deliberative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire called by Emperor Charles V (and king of Spain), during which he sides with Pope Leo X and declares Martin Luther an outlaw (the diet lasts until May 25), Luther is summoned to the diet by the emperor, and Prince Frederick III, Elector of Saxony obtains an agreement that the he would receive safe passage to and from the meeting

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 5 years old

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 49 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 9 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands

April 16, Luther arrives in Worms and appears before the Diet for initial statements, he is asked to either renounce or reaffirm his views and appear the next day at 4pm

April 17, Luther appears before the Diet, he says he cannot recant 

April 20, Emperor Zhengde of Ming China dies, aged 29 (b. 1491)

May 25, the Diet of Worms concludes with the Edict of Worms by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, saying, “For this reason we forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favour the said Martin Luther…”, Luther leaves for his home in Wittenberg, however, fearing for his safety Frederick III sent men to fake an attack and abduct Luther, hiding him away at Wartburg Castle (Wikipedia)

May 27, Jiajing is crowned emperor of Ming the Ming dynasty in China

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

 

1522

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon is queen – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China – Hadrian VI is pope

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 6 years old

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 50 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 10 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands

The first copy of the New Testament to be translated out of Latin and into a common tongue is printed, it’s in German and is known as the Luther Bible (result of Martin Luther’s movement and the Protestant Reformation), just think, for approximately 1,462 years, no one had a Bible in the common tongue, let alone have a personal Bible in their own home—this would come much later

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

 

1523

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon is queen – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile)  – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 7 years old

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 51 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 11 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

 

1524

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon is queen – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Grand Master of the Teutonic knights whose lands are in Prussia (will become first Duke of Prussia in 1525), Prussia is part of Poland right now

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 8 

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 52 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 12 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands

Streets of Paris are lit for the first time by royal order

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

 

1525

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catharine of Aragon is queen – James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg 3) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China – Huayna Capac, the Incan Emperor, ends his rule and the expansion of the Incan Empire comes to a halt (the Inca will fall into civil war in a few years)   

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 9 

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 53 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights until April 8 of this year, he already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

February, there is a major revolt called The Peasant’s War in Germany, the largest uprising in European history prior to the French Revolution, it started with agrarian revolts in the southern Black Forest and in the Lake Constance area and spread to Allgäu and the Upper Rhine, assuming both a religious and political character…In the Upper Swabian city of Memmingen rebels formulated the famous “Twelve Articles,” which crystallized grievances and insisted on the community’s right to elect its own pastor (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 35)

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 13 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands

April 8, the Treaty of Kraków is signed in which Albert of the Hohenzollern family receives the Duchy of Prussia by the king of Poland, Albert’s uncle, the Hohenzollern family is already the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Burgrave of Nuremburg, the Duchy of Prussia is not near Germany, but rather on the Baltic, in north-eastern Poland (prussiagate.substack.com), Albert had been converted to Protestantism largely by Martin Luther’s influence, so he dissolves the Roman Catholic Teutonic Order and makes it into a hereditary realm his heirs will inherit, so he is the LAST GRAND MASTER OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER AND THE FIRST DUKE OF PRUSSIA (Photo: Albert of Prussia in a portrait painted in 1612, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Basically, the lands of the Teutonic Order (because the knights had conquered it), has now become the Duchy of Prussia; Since this area is in Poland, it is the king of Poland, Sigmund I “the old,” who is authorizing this change; Sigmund I is Albert’s uncle; This change from the land of the Teutonic Knights to a hereditary dukedom, is accomplished by Albert and Sigmund signing the Treaty of Kraków, it should also be noted that Albert was the first ruler to make Protestantism the state religion of his lands (Photo: The Treaty of Krakow signed in 1525, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

(Note: The last emperor of Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm II, will be of the House of Hohenzollern, and his great, great, grandson, Georg Fredrick von Preusen [wonder if that is another word for Prussian?] in 2022 likes to be addressed as “His Royal Highness” and is seeking to demand rights of abode and usage for various castles and villas; in official court documents, he is called the “prince of Prussia,” additionally, it is also of note that the King of Prussia becomes the Kaiser of Germany in 1871, just a month before the US Act of 1871, which incorporates the United States and puts it under the control of a hidden financier, after this, much of the world will come under Prussian/German control)

King Henry VIII’s first wife, Queen Catherine of Aragon, hasn’t produced an heir yet and Henry is starting to fall in love with Anne Boleyn

The Incan capital of Cuzco in modern day Peru, sits at the center of a 12,500 mile road network, the Sapa Inca have imposed a realm-wide taxation system, control trade, and are drawing on peasant labor force for construction projects (History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 145)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built, habitable, and held by Hohenzollern Family

 

 

1526

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catherine of Aragon is queen – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland

February 18, The future Queen Mary I of England turns 10

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 54 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights until April 8 of last year, he has already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

March 5, Mercator, who becomes the great mapmaker and cosmographer, turns 14 years old, he’s living in the County of Flounders (Belgium), which is in the fiefdom of the Habsburg Netherlands, his father dies this year, and his uncle Gisbert, a priest, becomes his guardian, Gisbert sends Mercator to the famous school of the Brethren of the Common Life in the Duchy of Brabant, the school had been founded by the charismatic Geert Groote, who emphasized studying the Bible, while at the same time, expressed disapproval of the dogmas of the church

William Tyndale prints the first New Testament that’s translated into English

 

 

1527

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catherine of Aragon is queen – King James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 11 

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 55 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights until April 8 of 1525, now his hometown is ruled by Albert, duke of Prussia, Nicolaus already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

The Spanish Conquest of the Maya begins (1527-1697), (A History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 156-157)

 

 

1528

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catherine of Aragon is queen – James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, king of Italy, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 12

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 56 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights until April 8 of 1525, now his hometown is ruled by Albert, duke of Prussia, Nicolaus already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

The Spanish Conquest of the Maya continues (1527-1697), (A History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 156-157)

 

 

1529

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VIII is king of England/Catherine of Aragon is queen – James V is king of Scotland – Charles V (House of Habsburg) is Holy Roman Emperor, king of Germany, Archduke of Austria, and king of Spain (Aragon and Castile) – The Russian monarchy has not been established, Rurikid Dynasty of Grand Princes are ruling from Moscow – Jiajing is emperor of the Ming dynasty in China

Albert, of the House of Hohenzollern, is Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland

February 18, the future Queen Mary I of England turns 13 

February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus turns 57 years old, his hometown is in Prussia, Poland, which is under the control of the Teutonic Knights until April 8 of 1525, now his hometown is ruled by Albert, duke of Prussia, Nicolaus already proposed that the planets go around the sun back in 1514

November 5, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, makes his formal entry into Bologna where, in front of the Basilica of S. Petronio, Pope Clement waits to receive him, and after a brief ceremony of welcome, the two retire to the Palazzo del Podestà across the square, where neighboring apartments have been prepared for them (Podestà use to be the highest civil office for the government of the northern and central cities of Medieval Italy), There is much to be done, many outstanding problems that need to be discussed before Charles V can be crowned king of Italy could take place (The Middle Sea, Pg. 279)

The Spanish Conquest of the Maya continues (1527-1697), (A History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 156-157)

 

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