1400-1449 A.D. - Italian Renaissance

Intro

Body

Photo

Music

 

1400

Henry IV (House of Lancaster) is king of England

Modern-day scholars estimate that between 1400-1472, there were only a few thousands maps in circulation in Europe (after print, that number rose to an estimated 56,000 between 1472-1500) (GNT 12)

Geoffrey Chaucer finishes The Canterbury Tales

 

1401

Europeans begin exploration voyages down the western coast of Africa (FPW 186)

 

1402

Paper currency is initiated in Korea

Two priests living on the island of Lanzarotewrite write a book titled The Canarian chronicling the mad attempt by two Frenchmen, Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de La Salle, to take control of the Canary Islands, by this time Europeans had been haphazardly doing recon voyages there and around other Atlantic islands for more than half a century, at least since Lancelotto Malocello’s famous voyage, a number of different charts and maps from the late fourteenth century on make it clear that by then mariners and geographers knew of the existence of the Madeira island group, to the north of the Canaries, and of the Azores, a group even farther out into the Atlantic to the northwest, Béthencourt and La Salle want in on the goods that these expeditions were bringing home—especially slaves, they set sail in May and within a few months had managed to establish a precarious hold on a few Canary islands, “they knew fifteen Europeans had sailed from Lanzarote to Bojador, and had returned with a haul of black slaves.” (The Fourth Part of the World, Pg. 187)

 

1403

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1404

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1405

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1406

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

The recently re-discovered book Geography by Claudius Ptolemy (Greek cartographer, b. 100 A.D.) is translated into Latin by Jacabo d’Angelo, the manuscript provided thousands of coordinates of cities, rivers, mountains, coastlines and known continents, this re-discovery helps begins a new era of mapmaking based on two-dimensional, area-centered, mapped conception of space, instead of the itinerary based “maps” which were basically a list of written directions (GNT 10)

 

1407

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1408

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1409

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1410

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1411

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1412

Henry IV Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) is king of England

Joan of Arc is born on January 6 (estimate) at Domrémy, Duchy of Bar, in the Kingdom of France

 

1413

Henry IV Bolingbroke dies on March 20 at Westminster Abbey, aged 45, and is buried at Canterbury Cathedral, Henry V is crowned as king of England in Westminster Abbey on April 9

January 6, Joan of Arc turns one year old

 

1415

Henry V (House of Lancaster) is king of England

November 23, Henry V has a victory march through London after winning the battle of Agincourt

The Lancastrian War begins (third phase of the Hundred Years’ War) 1415-1453

Prince Henry (the Navigator) of Portugal, and his father, King João (or King John I), capture the Moroccan city of Ceuta—an important port off the North African coast, Ceuta (pronounced “Soota” is located on a stretch of coastline where Africa juts up and almost touches Spain (FPW 178)

 

1416

Henry V (House of Lancaster) is king of England

June 5, the general congregation of the Council of Constans listens to a Portuguese ambassador tell the story of how Ceuta was won from the Moors with only a day of fighting

 

1417

Henry V (House of Lancaster) is king of England

The Hohenzollern family acquires the Margraviate of Brandenburg (prussiagate.substack.com) 

Sir Henry Barton, Mayor of London, orders that “lanterns with lights to be hung out on winter evenings between Hallowtide and Candlemasse,” (it’s the beginning of large cities being lit)

 

1418

Henry V (House of Lancaster) is king of England

A Portuguese expedition reaches Porto Santo in Sahara Africa (Zarco and Teixeira were the explorers) by the sponsorship of Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal (he had obtained the “port and key” to Africa by taking the city of Ceuta back in 1415)

 

1419

Henry V (House of Lancaster) is king of England

 

1420

Henry V (House of Lancaster) is king of England – Charles VI is on the French throne

Henry V, king of England, marries Katherine, the daughter of Charles VI, king of France (they have one son together, Henry VI)

 

1421

Henry V (House of Lancaster) is king of England – Charles VI is on the French throne

December 6, Henry V, king of England and Katharine of France have a son, the future King Henry VI

 

1422

Henry V dies in Bois-de-Vincennes, France, on August 31, aged 34, and is buried in Westminster Abbey, his son, Henry VI becomes king of England on September 1 at not even a year old (he isn’t crowned until 1429), he also is proclaimed king of France when his mother’s father, Charles VI of France, dies, but he isn’t crowned in France until 1431

 

1423

Henry VI (House of Lancaster) is king of England (2 years old)

Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is completely destroyed by the Swabian League of Cities, which is primarily a military alliance between a number of free imperial cities (that are now in and around the area defined as south-west Germany), the castle will remain in ruins until 1454 (see that year) 

 

1424

Henry VI (House of Lancaster) is king of England (3 years old)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1425

Henry VI (House of Lancaster) is king of England (4 years old)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1426

Henry VI is king of England (5 years old)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1427

Henry VI is king of England (6 years old)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1428

Henry VI is king of England (7 years old)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1429

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VI is king of England

Joan of Arc galvanizes the French into action and she raises siege at Orléans, “the spirit of victory was restored to the French and a wave of national pride engulfed the country as they regained lands from the English along the Loire Valley

July 29, Isabella of Portugal marries Philip III (The Good), Duke of Burgundy by proxy (Burgundy is a House from which all the French Kings came)

November 6, Henry VI (7 years old) he is finally crowned on November 6 in Westminster Abbey

December 6, King Henry VI of England turns 8 years old

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1430

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VI is king of England

The Order of the Golden Fleece is established, it is a Catholic order of chivalry (today, two branches of the order exist, the Spanish and the Austrian Fleece), it is established by Philip III (The Good) in celebration of his marriage to Isabella of Portugal (Wikipedia)

Joan of Arc is captured by French nobles who were allied with the English and they hand her over to the English

James II of Scotland is born at Holyrood Abbey in the royal chambers (he will be crowned, married and eventually buried there as well) (Holyrood House visitors guide)

Cape Blanco (Tristão) off the coast of Sahara, Africa, is reached by a Portuguese expedition sponsored by Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal

December 6, King Henry VI of England turns 9 years old

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1431

Henry VI of England is crowned in Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris on November 16 (still 9 years old, he was declared king of France in 1422 when Charles VI died the same year as his father, Henry V)

May 23, Joan of Arc is burned at the stake at about 19 years of age

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1432

Henry VI is king of England (11 years old on December 6)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1433

Henry VI is king of England (12 years old on December 6)

Humfrey, Duke of Gloucester and younger brother of King Henry V, is granted 200 acres around his Greenwich manor house to turn into a royal park (it is now one of the oldest royal parks), shortly after, he was given a further grant to redesign his manor house and to build a tower on the current site of the Royal Observatory, his rebuilt house became known as Greenwich palace (or Placentia House after his death in 1447)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1434

Henry VI is king of England (13 years old on December 6)

Renaissance begins in Florence Italy—Cosimo de’ Medici rises to power in Florence, Italy (the Medici Family or House of Medici) they rule until the last Medici dies in 1737 without an heir, in that time they produce four popes (Leo X, Clement VII, Pius IV, and Leo XI) The family supported the arts and  humanities and made Florence the cradle of the Renaissance

Cape Bojador (Eanes is the explorer) on the coast of Sahara, Africa, is reached by a Portuguese expedition sponsored by Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal (no European had gotten this far into Africa before) (EB)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1435

Henry VI is king of England (14 years old on December 6)

“There’s no doubt that the Geography provided a general kind of inspiration to many of the great features of the Italian Renaissance. Notable among them was Leon Battista Alberti. By turns an architect, an artist, an art theorist, a cartographer, a cryptographer, a grammarian, a satirist, a sculptor, and a surveyor (among other things), Alberti clearly spent time studying (Claudius Ptolemy’s) Geography. In a work titled Praise of the Fly, for example, he mentioned Ptolemy by name and described his ‘picture of the world” as being organized by ‘intersecting parallels drawn perpendicular to one another.’ He also seems to have had the Geography in mind when he composed his highly influential 1435 treatise On Paintingthe first work to codify the principles of linear perspective and put them into writing.” (FPW 159-160)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1436

Henry VI is king of England (15 years old on December 6)

“Portuguese sailors brought home little of value in the years immediately after the rounding of cape Bojador (off the coast of west Saharan Africa), the most promising discovery came in 1436, when, some 120 leagues south of the Cape, [Prince] Henry’s sailors came across an inland waterway that they assumed was the mouth of the River of Gold, further investigation proved this theory wrong—but it also revealed that the waterway was a refuge for thousands of basking, blubbery sea lions, the animals offered the sailors at least some hope of a profit, Azurara wrote, in the form of skins and oils that could be sold at home, so the sailors carried out ‘a great slaughter’ and returned home with their bounty, Prince Henry, the owner of a monopoly on the production of soap in Portugal, professed himself greatly pleased.” (FPW 191)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1437

Henry VI is king of England (16 years old on December 6) – James II of Scotland is crowned in Holyrood Abbey

Prince Henry of Portugal begins his campaign to take over the North African city of Tangier (lasts until 1441) (FPW 191)

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1438

KINGS & RULERS: Henry VI is on the English throne

Prince Henry of Portugal continues his campaign to take over the North African city of Tangier

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

The Chimu Civilization on the north coast of Peru is flourishing, but will be taken over by the Inca in about 45 years

Machu Picchu in Peru is built between this year and 1472 as an estate for the Inca emperor, Pachacuti (this is what the most recent archaeologists are saying in 2021 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machu_Picchu) An interesting question is, did the Incas intend to line up Machu Picchu along with the Nazca tracts, Ollantaytambo, Cusco, Sacsayhuaman, Paratoari Pyramid (all in Peru), as well as Dogon Country (Mali, Africa), Tassili N’Ajjer (Mali, Africa), Siwa (Egypt) The Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt), Petra (Jordan, Middle East), Ur (Iraq), Persepolis (Iran), Mohenjo Daro (Pakistan) [writing close to Easter Island’s and has radioactive skeletons], Khajuaraho (India), Pyay (Burma), Sukhothai (Thailand), Angkor Wat (Cambodia), Easter Island, which are all in a circle around the earth? Or was it coincidence? (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2fS9ixfQ_no 1:15:26 hour/minute mark)

Keep in mind that the stone circles (over 10 million of them), including Adam’s Calendar (an astronomical calendar) have been in South Africa and Zimbabwe for at least 74,500 years by this time (see [link year page] B.C.); Also keep in mind that Adam’s Calendar in South Africa is perfectly in line at 31 degrees longitude with the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt (see [link year page] B.C.); It’s just odd how these places seem to line up and connect

 

1439

Henry VI is on the English throne

Prince Henry of Portugal continues his campaign to take over the North African city of Tangier

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1440

Henry VI is on the English throne

The throne of the Holy Roman Empire will now be continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from this year until their extinction in the male line in 1740, then ruled again from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806, the king of the Holy Roman Empire was called “King of the Romans”

Prince Henry of Portugal continues his campaign to take over the North African city of Tangier

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1441

Henry VI is on the English throne

Prince Henry of Portugal finally ends his campaign to take over the North African city of Tangier (now in Morocco), it ended as a costly failure

Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps of Germany is in ruins and uninhabitable

 

1442

Henry VI is on the English throne

 

1443

Henry VI is on the English throne

A Portuguese sailing expedition reaches Cape Blanco in Sahara Africa (Tritão is the explorer) it’s sponsored by Prince Henry the Navigator (EB)

 

1444

Henry VI is on the English throne

 

1445

Henry VI is king of England

Another Portuguese sailing expedition reaches further down the western coast of Sahara Africa, close to Gambia (Dias is the explorer), the expedition is sponsored by Prince Henry the Navigator (Encyclopedia Britannica)

 

1446

Henry VI is king of England

Another Portuguese sailing expedition reaches further down the western coast of Sahara Africa, in Gambia (Tristão is the explorer), the expedition is sponsored by Prince Henry the Navigator (Encyclopedia Britannica)

 

1447

Henry VI is king of England

Duke Humphrey dies

 

1448

Henry VI is king of England

 

1449

Henry VI is king of England

Leave a comment