1300-1399 A.D. - Chaucer & The Black Death

Intro

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1300 

Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Andrey

III is on the Russian throne

– In Constantinople, an icon of St. John the Baptist is painted on gold-leaf on a linen-faced panel, it was probably painted for the personal devotions of someone of high rank,  it is now held in the British Museum (BM 127)

– Sometime during the 14th century, the Islamic stone town of Songo Mnara is built on an island off the Swahili Coast of Tanzania, archaeologists have found six mosques, four cemeteries, and two dozen house blocks along with three enclosed open spaces on the island, it was constructed from rough-coral and mortar and was built as one of many trade towns on the Indian Ocean, it was occupied until the 1500s, on an island close to this one, another port city named Kilwa Kisiwani had already been established since the 11th century, “Meanwhile [see year 1000 A.D.] Berber [North African nomadic tribes that by this time had become Islamized] merchants and nomads of the Sahara had initiated a trans-Saharan trade in gold and slaves that incorporated the lands of the Sudan into the Islamic world. Those achievements of the Barbar were celebrated in a massive history of North Africa by the 14th century Arab historian Ibn Khaldun [born in 1322]. By then, however, the Berbers were in retreat, subjected to Arabization of two very different kinds.

– The Ebstorf mappa mundi is created, it has one of the first representations of German lands, it’s a giant circular, eastern-oriented map, measuring more than 3.5 meters across, the Ebstorf world map shows some 500 buildings representing towns, churches, castles and monasteries; the map also reveals more than 100 bodies of water, a great many islands and mountains, 45 human or humanlike creatures, and about 60 animals, “Unlike modern world maps that depict the earth in a moment of time, the Ebstorf map fused past and present, religious and worldly, into a comprehensive history of God, man and nature” (GNT 4) 

1302  – KINGS & RULERS: Edward I “Longshanks” is king of England

– A fire destroys much of the royal palace at Winchester, but the Great Hall survives (CPSH 14)

1307  – KINGS & RULERS: Edward I “Longshanks” dies (buried in Westminster

Abbey), and his son Edward II of Caernarfon becomes king of England

1312  – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England

– The Golden Horde (part of the Mongol Empire), under Batu Kahn, adopts Islam (Wikipedia, Golden Horde)

1314  – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England – Philip IV of France dies

and Louis X becomes king of France

1316  – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England – Louis X of France dies

and John I becomes king of France (Nov. 15-20), then Philip V becomes king of France

1322  – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England – Philip V of France dies

and Charles IV becomes king of France

1324  – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England

– January 8, Marco Polo dies in Venice

1325 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England

– A princess from a Native American tribe is betrothed to an Aztec prince (the Aztecs are a small tribe right now), but when the 13 year old girl goes with the Aztecs to perform a ceremony at their temple, instead of honoring her, they sacrifice her, take out her heart, then flay her and wear her skin in a dance before her father; Enraged, the father and his men chase the Aztecs out of the area, and the Aztecs settle in the swampy region of lake Texcoco, near modern day Mexico City; The Aztecs begin to build a city there, not too far from an already ruined city called Teotihuacan, which they thought had been the city of the gods, and the birthplace of the sun (History Channel YouTube Video)

1326 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England

1327 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward II is king of England until January 20, when he

is murdered, aged 43, his son Edward III, becomes king (House of Plantagenet)   

1328 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet) –

Charles IV of France dies, and Philip VI becomes king of France (House of Valois)

1331 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet)

The Islamic town of Kilwa Kisiwani is hitting its peak as a trading port town on an island off the Swahili Coast of Tanzania, “The great traveler, Ibn Battouta made a stop here [Kilwa Kisiwani] and described Kilwa as one of the most beautiful cities in the world,” “The islands of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara bear exceptional testimony to the expansion of Swahili Coastal culture, the Islamisation, of East Africa and the extraordinary extensive and prosperous Indian Ocean trade from the medieval period up to the modern era.” (unesco.org),

1337 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet)

The Hundred Years’ War begins—a series of conflicts in Western Europe between 1337-1453 waged between the House of Plantagenet and its cadet House of Lancaster, ruler of the Kingdom of England and the House of Valois over the right to rule the Kingdom of France, the first of the three wars inside The Hundred Years’ War is known at the Edwardian War 1337-1360

[TOP SOIL: Anaphora is almost 500 years old, est. 865]

1338 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet)

1339 –

1340 –  

1345 – Notre Dame is completed and opened

1346 –

1347 – 

1348 – The Black Death comes to London and about half of the population (which

was 80,000) die from the disease, not until the sixteenth century did the

population rise to its pre-1348 heights

1350 – Philip VI of France dies, and John II becomes king of France

1356 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet) –

John II is king of France

– The University of Vienna is founded and is the oldest university in the German-speaking world

1362 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet) –

John II is king of France

– The Kensington Rune Stone is inscribed—possibly by knights of the Templar—and buried in what is now Kensington, Minnesota; The inscription reads: “Eight Götalanders and 22 Norwegians on (this) reclaiming /acquisition journey, far to the west from Vinland. We had a camp by two (shelters?) one day’s journey north from this stone. We were fishing one day. After we came home, we found 10 men red with blood and death. Ave Maria. Save from evil. There are 10 men by the sea to look after our ships fourteen days journey from this island. Year 1362.” (The Hooked X, Key to the Secret History of North America Pg. 10)  

– The Inca peoples in Peru are growing and expanding their territory

– The Chimu kingdom is in northern Peru

– The first Aztec king will rule in Mexico in just 5 years

1363 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet) –

John II is king of France

1364 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet) –

John II of France dies and Charles V becomes king of France

1367 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet) –

Acamapichtli becomes the first king of the Aztecs in the city Tenochtitlan (near Mexico City) and founds the Aztec imperial dynasty, his name means “handful of arrows” or “handful of reeds”

1369 – KINGS & RULERS: Edward III is king of England (House of Plantagenet) –

Acamapichtli is the first king of the Aztecs

– The Caroline War (second phase of The Hundred Years’ War) begins 1369-1389

1370 – The Royal Cup, probably made in Paris about 1370-80 for Charles V of

France, then later it was in put in the royal English collections in the fifteenth

and sixteenth centuries, the cup is of solid gold decorated in basse-taille

enamel with the story of St. Agnes (CBM 131)

1380 – Charles V of France dies and Charles VI becomes king of France

1381 – Peasants Revolt in London

1387 – KINGS & RULERS: Richard II is king of England (last of the House of

Plantagenet) – Acamapichtli is the first king of the Aztecs (some records have him dying this year, others say 1403)

– Geoffrey Chaucer begins writing The Canterbury Tales (finishes in 1400), in which he tells the tales of different members of society traveling together on crusade/pilgrimage

1392 – Joseon dynasty/kingdom begins in Korea when Yi Seonggye is crowned king

1394 – Prince Henry (the Navigator) of Portugal is born to King John I of Portugal and

Philippa of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt of England

1395 – The Gyeongbokgung Palace is built in Seoul and is the royal palace of the Joseon

dynasty, at one time the palace grounds covered 40 acres and contained 500 buildings, being a royal city within the capital—a city within a city, interesting! (Later, most of the buildings will be destroyed during the Japanese colonial occupation, but some of the main buildings still stand in downtown Seoul) (BHK)

1396 – Capital of Korea is moved to Hanyang (modern day Seoul)

1397 – Ptolemy’s Geography makes it back to Europe by way of Chrysoloras, who was

teaching in Florence at this time (FPW 155)

1399 – Richard II is dying (he dies next year in February) and Henry IV, the first Lancastrian

monarch, becomes king of England

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