1200-1219 A.D. - The Magna Carta

(Feature Photo: A manuscript illustration showing The Battle of Lincoln in 2017 and the death of Thomas, Count of Perche (left), by Matthew Paris)

 

1200

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Llywelyn Fawr (The Great) ap Iorweth becomes the Welsh king of Gwynedd (east Gwyedd from 1195 and in 1210 he is regarded as the prince of Wales) – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is king of France – Vsevolod III is the prince of Moscow (no tsars yet)

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King John Marries a Girl Who is Already Engaged

August 29, King John I of England marries his second wife Isabella, Countess of Angoulême at Bordeaux Cathedral (he divorced Isabella, Countess of Gloucester last year); Isabella of Angoulême was already engaged to Hugh de Lusignan of France

 

Hugh de Lusignan then complains to King Philip II of France, and when King Philip summons John to give an answer for himself, John refuses...

...so Philip II begins to confiscate all of John's lands in France

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Matthew Paris is born in England; He will become a monk at St. Alban’s, as well as a great mapmaker and chronicler  

Somewhere around 1200, the Hohenzollern family starts out as counts of Zollern in the South of Germany (they later become the Burgrave of Nuremberg) (prussiagate.substack.com)

The University of Paris is founded (History of the World Map by Map pg. 104)

The Aztecs appear in Mesoamerica, they probably began as a northern tribe of hunter-gatherers whose name came from their homeland Aztlan, or “White Land” in the Aztec language of Nahuatl, the Aztecs attack and take the Toltec cities as their own, thus ending the great Toltec/Mayan Civilizations

The first Inca war-like chieftain of the Quichua tribe begins his rule in Cuzco (approx.); He is worshipped as a demigod, the son of the Sun (Lost City of the Incas Pg. 29)

A Palazzo del Podestà (there were many of these) is built in Bologna; A Podestà is the highest civil office of government in the northern and central Italian cities

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798 Years From Now

October 20, 1998, John Podesta becomes the US White House Chief of Staff to President Bill Clinton; He remains so until January 20, 2001; He is briefly Counselor to the President from 2014-2015 during the Obama administration; Podesta is a title used for the highest civil office of government in Italy (see above) (Photo: President Bill Clinton and White House Chief of Staff, John Podesta, in 2000)

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A silver-gilt head-reliquary from the Cathedral at Basle Switzerland is made (approx. date), inside a cavity in the wooden Core is where relics would have been kept, including a relic of the skull of St. Eustace, the hunter, now housed in the British Museum (Collections of the British Museum, Pg. 129)

 

1201

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is king of France – Vsevolod III is the prince of Moscow (no tsars yet)

King John I of England is at war with the Lusignans (a royal house of French origin), since he married Hugh Lusignan's fiancé last year; The war is going poorly for John and he begins to lose his lands in France

 

1202

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is king of France – Vsevolod III is the prince of Moscow (no tsars yet)

King John I of England has temporary success in his war with the Lusignans at Mirebeau when he captures Arthur of Brittany

 

1203 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is king of France – Vsevolod III is prince of Moscow (no tsars yet) 

King John I of England's war with the Lusignans in France continues

 

1204 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne –

King John I of England loses Normandy in France as the war with the royal house of Lusignan continues

March 31, Eleanor of Aquitaine dies and is buried in the abbey church at Fontevrault next to her husband, King Henry II of England

Maimonides (Jewish Sephardic philosopher, physician and astronomer who wrote that King Solomon hid the Ark of the Covenant in a network of tunnels under the temple mount) dies in Fustat, Egypt

The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople goes from being a Christian Cathedral to a Roman Catholic one (until 1261 when it becomes a Christian one again)

The University of Vicenza is founded in the Kingdom of Italy (History of the World, Map by Map, pg. 104) 

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“Between 1204-1261 Constantinople is ruled from the west, and the resulting influences are particularly noticeable in such items as an extensive collection of glass pilgrim-tokens, steatite (soapstone) carvings and a rare ‘Crusader’ icon of St. George, painted by a western artist in the Byzantine manner.”

(Collections of the British Museum, Pg. 127)

 

 

1205 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne

King John establishes the first royal fleet at Dover and completes the castle’s outer defenses; He is still at war with the Lusignans in France

 

1206 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne

King John I of England's war with the Lusignans in France ends with him losing Normandy, Anjou, Maine and parts of Poitou to King Phillip of France

In northeast Mongolia...

“A resourceful and audacious twenty-year-old called Temijin, scion of a junior branch of the neither numerous nor powerful Meng people of that region, having united the Meng and overrun more formidable neighbors, was acclaimed their “Chinggis (or Genghis) Khan” (Ocean Qaghan or Universal Ruler)…Only by more raids, more proof of invincibility and more redistributed plunder—livestock, gold, furs, textiles, foodstuffs craftsman, presentable women and enslave-able children—could loyalty be rewarded and the allegiance of others attracted” –“Meng” is just the Chinese rendering of “Mongol”

(A History of China, pg. 351) 

 

1207

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne

 

1208 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia, his rival, dies, leaving Otto the sole king of Germany/Romans thus ending the civil war), he also becomes king of Italy and of Burgundy this year – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne 

 

1209 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Italy and Burgundy, he marches into Italy to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III (still king of Germany/Romans?) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne

Mongol armies under Chinggis Khan ride in from the Gobi and lay siege to the Tangut capital beside the Yellow River, it’s their first attack on a city (A History of China pg. 353)

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Back to School

The first university in Cambridge University is founded

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1210

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Italy and Burgundy, as well as the Holy Roman Emperor, he tries to unite the Kingdom of Sicily with the Holy Roman Empire this year, breaking with Pope Innocent III who excommunicates him on November 18 – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne 

 

1211 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Italy and Burgundy as well as the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne

Chinggis Khan and his Mongol armies begin raiding the northern territories of the Jurchen Jin (A History of China, pg. 351) 

 

1212 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy, Burgundy and becomes king of Germany/the Romans when he is crowned in Mainz on December 9 – Otto IV is king the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne 

 

1213 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy and Germany/the Romans – Otto IV is king Burgundy as well as the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne 

 

1214 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy, and Germany/the Romans – Otto IV is king Burgundy as well as the Holy Roman Emperor (including Italy) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne  

 

1215 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is king of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy, Burgundy and Germany/the Romans – Otto IV is the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne  

King John I of England signs the Magna Carta at Runnymede

Rochester Castle is besieged for two months by royalists (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland, Pg. 31)  

The University of Arezzo is founded in the Kingdom of Italy

Chinggis Khan captures the Jin capital (the later Bejing) (A History of China, Pg. 353)

 

1216 

RULERS & ROYALTY: John I is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne

After King John reneges on the Magna Carta, Prince Louis of France invades England and besieges Dover Castle, it is successfully defended by a few hundred men, King John dies (buried in Worcester Cathedral), Henry III is crowned king of England at Gloucester cathedral on October 28 

 

1217 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Konstantin (elder brother of Yuri II) is on the Russian throne – Under Henry III, enormous sums are spent strengthening Dover, making it one of the largest and most strategically important castles in England 

 

1218 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is restored to the Russian throne Chinggis Khan easily subdues the Kara Khitai (or Western Liao) of Turkestan  

 

1219 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne