1200-1299 A.D. - The Magna Carta

Intro

Photo

Listen to the era

 

1200

KINGS & RULERS: John I is on the throne of England – Llywelyn Fawr (The

Great) ap Iorweth becomes the Welsh king of Gwynedd (east Gwyedd from 1195 and in 1210 he is regarded as the prince of Wales) – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne

– Matthew Paris is born in England, he’s a monk at St. Alban’s and was a great mapmaker [Mathew could be an averant??]

Somewhere around 1200, the Hohenzollern family starts out as counts of Zollern in the South of Germany (they later become the Burgrave of Nuremberg) (prussiagate.substack.com)

– The university of Paris is founded (History of the World Map by Map Pg. 104)

The Aztecs appear in Mesoamerica, they probably began as a northern tribe of hunter-gatherers whose name came from their homeland Aztlan, or “White Land” in the Aztec language of Nahuatl, the Aztecs attack and take the Toltec cities as their own, thus ends the great Toltec/Mayan Civilization

The first Inca war-like chieftain of the Quichua tribe begins his rule in Cuzco (approx.); He is worshipped as a demigod, the son of the Sun (Lost City of the Incas Pg. 29)

– A Palazzo del Podestà (there were many of these) is built in Bologna, a Podestà is the highest civil office of government in northern and central Italian cities

– A silver-gilt head-reliquary from the Cathedral at Basle Switzerland is made (approx. date), inside a cavity in the wooden Core is where relics would have been kept, including a relic of the skull of St. Eustace, the hunter, now housed in the British Museum (CBM 129)

[FIRST YEAR OF TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne – Haetae turns 16 and is still attending ____ college in the Milling Kingdom, her friendship with the Dashlades is very close by this time and she becomes very good friends with Meridian’s great x10? grandmother]

1201 – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne

P – The

[TOPSOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1202 – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war)  – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1203  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1204  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war)  – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – Maimonides (Jewish Sephardic philosopher, physician and astronomer who wrote that King Solomon hid the Ark of the Covenant in a network of tunnels under the temple mount) dies in Fustat, Egypt – On March 31, Eleanor of Aquitaine dies and is buried in the abbey church at Fontevrault next to her husband, Henry II –  “Between 1204-1261 Constantinople is ruled from the west, and the resulting influences are particularly noticeable in such items as an extensive collection of glass pilgrim-tokens, steatite (soapstone) carvings and a rare ‘Crusader’ icon of St. George, painted by a western artist in the Byzantine manner.” (CBM 127) – The Hagia  Sophia in Constantinople goes from being a Christian Cathedral to a Roman Catholic one (until 1261 when it becomes a Christian one again) – The university of Vicenza is founded in the Kingdom of Italy (HWMM 104) [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1205  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – King John establishes the first royal fleet at Dover and completes the castle’s outer defenses – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1206  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – In northeast Mongolia, “a resourceful and audacious twenty-year-old called Temijin, scion of a junior branch of the neither numerous nor powerful Meng people of that region, having united the Meng and overrun more formidable neighbors, was acclaimed their “Chinggis Khan” (Ocean Qaghan or Universal Ruler)…Only by more raids, more proof of invincibility and more redistributed plunder—livestock, gold, furs, textiles, foodstuffs craftsman, presentable women and enslave-able children—could loyalty be rewarded and the allegiance of others attracted” –“Meng” is just the Chinese rendering of “Mongol” (AHC 351) [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1207  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia is his rival during a civil war) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1208  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Germany/Romans (Philip of Swabia, his rival, dies, leaving Otto the sole king of Germany/Romans thus ending the civil war), he also becomes king of Italy and of Burgundy this year – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1209  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Italy and Burgundy, he marches into Italy to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III (still king of Germany/Romans?) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne –  Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – Mongol armies under Chinggis Khan ride in from the Gobi and lay siege to the Tangut capital beside the Yellow River, it’s their first attack on a city (AHC 353) – The first university is in Cambridge University is founded – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1210 – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Italy and Burgundy, as well as the Holy Roman Emperor, he tries to unite the Kingdom of Sicily with the Holy Roman Empire this year, breaking with Pope Innocent III who excommunicates him on November 18 – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1211  – John I is on the English throne – Fredrich II is king of Sicily – Otto IV is king of

Italy and Burgundy as well as the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – Chinggis Khan and his Mongol armies begin raiding the northern territories of the Jurchen Jin (AHC 351) – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1212  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy, Burgundy

and becomes king of Germany/the Romans when he is crowned in Mainz on December 9 – Otto IV is king the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Vsevolod III is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1213  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy and

Germany/the Romans – Otto IV is king Burgundy as well as the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1214  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy, and

Germany/the Romans – Otto IV is king Burgundy as well as the Holy Roman Emperor (including Italy) – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1215  – John I is on the throne of England – Fredrich II is king of Sicily, Italy, Burgundy

and  Germany/the Romans – Otto IV is the Holy Roman Emperor – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne  

King John of England signs the Magna Carta at Runnymede

– Rochester Castle is besieged for two months by royalists (CPSH 31)  

– The university of Arezzo is founded in the Kingdom of Italy

Chinggis Khan captures the Jin capital (the later Bejing) (AHC 353)

– [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne – STORM IN THE STARS SEASON THREE ENDS: The Battle for the Milling Kingdom takes place on ________ and Milling Kingdom is cursed, Haetae (31 years old) falls asleep in Undertowers, later that year on _______, the College in the woods is destroyed and abandoned / remember: Thane’s Angevin/Angevell line of ancestors has already begun, Constans I stores the calendar seal in a vault in his palace at the City of Seals]

1216  – John I is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne – 

Yuri II is on the Russian throne – After King John reneges on the Magna Carta, Prince Louis of France invades England and besieges Dover Castle, it is successfully defended by a few hundred men, King John dies (buried in Worcester Cathedral), Henry III is crowned king of England at Gloucester cathedral on October28 – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne – The slaughter of the Battle for the Milling Kingdom was so great, that few families are left afterward, and most of the ruined colleges are demolished and used to rebuild houses that had been destroyed, the curse continues to work, what is left of the people abandon or cover over the fortress that Haetae is laid in, it is a bad thing to move a sleeping person from where they fell, they are to leave them untouched, and so Haetae was left there while the dead were removed and buried]

1217  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne

– Konstantin (elder brother of Yuri II) is on the Russian throne – Under Henry III, enormous sums are spent strengthening Dover, making it one of the largest and most strategically important castles in England – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1218  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne

–  Yuri II is restored to the Russian throne Chinggis Khan easily subdues the Kara Khitai (or Western Liao) of Turkestan – [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1219  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne

– Yuri II is on the Russian throne [TOP SOIL: Constans I is on the Anaphorian throne]

1220  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne

– Yuri II is on the Russian throne [TOP SOIL: Constans I dies and Constans II becomes king of Anaphora]

1221  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne

– Yuri II is on the Russian throne [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1222  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus is on the French throne

– Yuri II is on the Russian throne – The university of Padua (law) is founded in the Kingdom of Italy [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1223  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip II Augustus dies and Louis VIII (The

Lion) becomes king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne – Chinggis Khan’s campaign ends in victory over the Muslim kingdom of Khwarasm (roughly Uzbekistan) – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1224  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis VIII (The Lion) is king of France –

Yuri II is on the Russian throne [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1225  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis VIII (The Lion) is king of France –

Yuri II is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1226  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis VIII of France dies and Louis IX

becomes king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1227  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – Chinggis Khan dies after complications from falling off

his horse – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1228 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian

throne]

1229 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – The university of Toulouse is founded in France (HWMM 104) – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1230 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne – Haetae has been in a lightless sleep for 30 years]

1231  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – Mongol invasions of Korea begin – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1232 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne

– Carving begins on the woodblocks used to print the Buddhist cannon, they are carved and kept at the Tripitaka Koreana in Korea (Wikipedia and BHK)

[TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1233 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1234  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – The Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun is published in Korea

(Goryeo dynasty) and is the world’s first metal-block printed text – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1235 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1236 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – The university of Orleáns is founded (HWMM 104) – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1237 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

is on the Russian throne – The Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus (now parts of

modern-day Russia, Ukraine and Belarus), the Mongols destroy many cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev, with the only major cities escaping destruction being Novgorod and Pskov, the invasion lasts until 1242 – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1238  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II

dies and Yaroslav II ascends to the Russian throne – “Matthew [Paris] first reported that something was wrong in 1238. Merchants from northern Europe customarily sailed each year to Yarmouth, a fishing port on England’s east coast, to buy herring—but in 1238, Matthew noted, they never came, and rotting fish piled up in the port’s markets. That same year ambassadors representing the Assassins—a widely feared Muslim sect based in Iran and Syria—arrived in England and France, and appealed for help, Matthew wrote, ‘on behalf of the whole of the people of the East.’ It was an extraordinary overture, given the relationship between Christians and Muslims at the time. But it was born of extraordinary circumstances. ‘A monstrous and inhuman race of men had burst forth from the northern mountains,’ the ambassadors announced, ‘and had taken possession of the extensive, rich lands of the East.’ The invaders were called Tartars, and they came, Matthew reported, from ‘the Caspian mountains or the adjacent places’—northeastern limits of the world as it was portrayed on the mappaemundi. Led by a ferocious man named Khan,’ the Tartars had overrun vast stretches of Muslim territory and had already ravaged greater Hungary—lands on the southwestern side of the Ural Mountains, that is, in present-day Russia. If Christians and Muslims didn’t immediately put aside their differences and work together to repel the marauders in Muslim territory, the ambassadors claimed, all of Europe itself would soon be under attack.” (FPW 46) – Templar houses are being used to provide numerous sensitive services: they are used to distribute pensions promised by monarchs to wartime allies, and are party to agreements in which they operate as a mutually respected third party between warring rivals, they guarantee debts, ransom hostages and prisoners of war on credit, and can arrange very large loans—such as the one made in this year by Baldwin II, emperor of Constantinople, secured by his very own fragment of the True Cross (TT 239) – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1239  – Henry III is on the throne of England

1240  – Henry III is on the throne of England

1241  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne – The Thames floods six miles over its banks

after an unusual amount of rain fall (written by Matthew Paris, a monk at St. Albans)

[TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1242  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne – The Mongol invasion of Kievan and Rus

Ends, successfully taking over much of Russia, and all Rus principalities are

forced to submit to Mongol rule and became vassals of the Golden Horde (some of

which last until 1480), though the Golden Horde starts as part of the Mongol Empire, it later turns into a Turkicized Khanate and in 1312, it adopts Islam as its main religion (Wikipedia) – French and English forces clash at the Battle of Taillebourg on the bridge that spanned the Charente River, a strategic point on the route between northern and southern France, Henry III is trying to reclaim continental possessions in France, but he is defeated, and it marks the end of the Angevin Empire[TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne – Thane’s Angevin ancestors flee the Lands Without at this time? Enter the Lands Within and settle in the Anaphorian Empire?]

1243  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1244  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1245  – Henry III is on the throne of England – TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the

Anaphorian throne]

1246  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav II dies, and Sviatoslav ascends to the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1247  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Sviatoslav III is on the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1248  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Sviatoslav III is deposed and Mikhail briefly ascends to the Russian throne, but then Sviatoslav III is quickly restored  – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1249  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Sviatoslav III dies and Andrey II ascends the Russian throne – [TOP SOIL: Constans II is on the Anaphorian throne]

1250  – KINGS & RULERS: Henry III is kings of England – Louis IX is king of

France – Andrey II is on the Russian throne

– The university of Angers is founded in France

– The Moai (a word meaning “statue”) on Easter Island begin to be carved by the Rapa Nui people, these sculptures are also known as the Easter Island Heads); the heads will be carved between 1250-1500 according to Wikipedia – Although, the Encyclopedia Britannica says that they began being carved between 700-850, either way, it seems they either have been carved or are being carved at this point

– The City of Cahokia in North America near present day St. Louis, Missouri, (but its in Illinois on the other side of the Mississippi River) is larger than London at this point, it is surrounded by more than 120 pyramids, and farmland, it is a trading center, it was built about the same time as the Mayan culture, it also compared to Paris’ population https://cahokiamounds.org/   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6mONLw-Hgc&t=12s 

The Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517) emerges from the weakening of the Ayyubid realm in Egypt and Syria, within a short period of time, the Mamluks created the greatest Islamic empire of the later Middle Ages, which included control of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, Henry III makes lavish improvements to Westminster Palace, creating the superb King’s Great Chamber (CPSH 14)

– Sometime in the thirteenth century, a gold cloisonné pendant reliquary with representations of St. George and St. Demetrios inscribed ‘[the bearer] prays that you will be his fiery defense in battle’ and round the edge, ‘Anointed with your blood and myrrh,’ from Salonica (BM 127)

1251  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Andrey II is on the Russian throne

1252  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Andrey II dies and (Saint) Alexander ascends to the Russian throne

1253  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne

1254  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – Marco Polo is born in Venice Italy

1255  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – Mathew Paris, a Benedictine monk who

lives at the monastery in St. Albans, creates a map of the earth and the cosmos in circles, the earth is a circle in the middle called “Terra” and is fixed in the center, surrounded by the circles of water, air, fire, the moon, the planets, and the firmament, “Medieval Europeans, even the most learned of geographers among them, are to this day often described as having believed the world was flat. But this isn’t true. Thanks in large part to the labors of Arab astronomers and mathematicians, ancient Greek proofs of the earth as spherical had survived into the Middle Ages and were circulating in Europe—and at some point early in the thirteenth century an English scholar known as John of Holywood, or Sacrobosco, Laid them out in an astronomical treatise appropriately titled The Sphere” also translated at The Sphere of the World or Discussion on the Sphere, the RAS of England has a copy of it from 1485 (see that year), “If the earth was flat,” Sacrobosco wrote, “the stars would rise as soon for Westerners as for Orientals, which is false. Also if the earth were flat from north to south and vice versa, the stars that were always visible to anyone would continue to be so wherever he went, which is false. But it seems flat to human sight because it is so extensive,” Matthew Paris also drew the Holy Roman Emperor, Fredrich II holding a T-O globe (The Fourth Part of the World, pg. 27-28)

1256  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – Dover Castle’s strengthening

improvements by Henry III are completed

1257  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – Dover Castle’s strengthening

improvements by Henry III are complete d

1258  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – Dover Castle’s strengthening

improvements by Henry III are completed

1259  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – Dover Castle’s strengthening

improvements by Henry III are completed

1260  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – During the 1260s, the Chapter House is built in York Minster – The Polos (Marco Polo’s family, foresees a political change in Constantinople (the overthrow of the Crusaders who had ruled there since 1204) liquidate their property there, invested their capital in jewels, and set off for the Volga River, where Berke Khan, sovereign of the western territories in the Mongol Empire held court at Sarai or Bulgar, the Polos apparently managed their affairs well at Berke’s court, where they doubled their assets, when political events prevented their return to Venice, they traveled eastward to Bukhara (Bokhara) and ended their journey in 1265

1261  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne – The Hagia Sophia becomes a Christian Cathedral again after being a Roman Catholic one, and it remains so until it becomes a Mosque in 1453, The crusaders who had ruled Constantinople since 1204, are overthrown by Michael VIII Palaeologus (EB)

1262  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne

1263  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

(Saint) Alexander is on the Russian throne

1264  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav III ascends to the Russian throne

1265  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav III is on the Russian throne – The Polos end their journey in the

western territories of the Mongol Empire, probably at the grand khan’s summer residence, Shangdu (immortalized as Xanadu by English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge) (EB)

1266  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav III is on the Russian throne

1267  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav III is on the Russian throne – The first directed mention of a castle

complex, “Castro Zolre,” (now known as Hohenzollern Castle in Germany) occurs, it is praised as “the most fortified House in Germany” (now see 1423) (https://www.burg-hohenzollern.com/castle-history.html)

1268  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav III is on the Russian throne  

1269  – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne –

Yaroslav III is on the Russian throne – “When Niccolò and Maffeo Polo finally

reappeared in Acre in 1269, they had with them a magnificent gold tablet and a letter. The tablet, which granted the brothers provisions, lodging and safe passage anywhere they traveled in Mongol territory, came from the ‘Great Khan of all the Tartars, whose name was Kubilai.’ Kubilai presided over a vast and powerful kingdom known as Cathay (China), located at the very ‘ends of the earth, in an east-north-easterly direction,’ and the brothers claimed to have visited him there. The letter they carried also came from the Kubilai. In it he addressed the pope directly but made none of the customary Mongol demands for submission. Instead he sent greetings and requested a hundred learned Christians be dispatched to his court, where he hoped to see them ‘argue and demonstrate plainly to idolaters and those of other persuasions that their religion is utterly mistaken.’ He also made a memorable promise,” he promised that he and all his court would be baptized and become Christian (FPW 66)

1270 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX dies in August and Philip III the

Bold ascends to the French throne – Yaroslav III is on the Russian throne Louis IX of France lands near Tunis (modern-day city in Tunisia, near Carthage) in July and wins a series of easy victories over the Arabs, including taking the city of Carthage, but a plague struck his army and he died in August after leaving instructions to his son, Phillip, to protect and assist the poor (EB) there now stands a late 1800s French Cathedral in the city of Carthage for “Saint Louis,” and Philip III the Bold becomes king of France

1271 – Henry III is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Yaroslav III is on the Russian throne – Marco Polo, the Venetian merchant and adventurer begins his travels from Europe to Asia between 1271 – 1295, staying in China for 17 of those years and whose Il milione (“The Million”), known in English as the Travels of Marco Polo is a classic of travel literature (EB)

1272 – Henry III dies and is buried in Westminster Abbey, the House of Anjou

begins with Edward I being crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey

– Philip III is on the French throne – Vasily ascends to the Russian throne  

1272 – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Vasily is on the Russian throne

1273 – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Vasily is on the Russian throne

1274 – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Vasily is on the Russian throne

1275 – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Vasily is on the Russian throne

1276 – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Vasily is on the Russian throne

1277  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Vasily dies in January and Dmitry ascends to the Russian throne

1278  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Dmitry is on the Russian throne

1279  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Dmitry is on the Russian throne

1280  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Dmitry is on the Russian throne

1281  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Dmitry is deposed and Andrey III ascends to the Russian throne

1282  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Andrey III is on the Russian throne

1283  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Andrey III is deposed and Dmitry is restored to the Russian throne – Conwy castle

is built and opened by Edward I of England

1284  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III the Bold is on the French throne

– Dmitry is on the Russian throne

1285  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip III of France dies and Philip IV

ascends to the French throne – Dmitry is on the Russian throne

1286  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is on the Russian throne

1287  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is on the Russian throne

1288  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is on the Russian throne

1289  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is on the Russian throne

1290  –  Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is on the Russian throne

1291  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is on the Russian throne – A fire heavily damages Westminster Hall within

Westminster Palace

1292  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is on the Russian throne

1293  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Dmitry

is deposed (dies next year) and Andrey III is restored to the Russian throne

1294  –  Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Andrey

III is on the Russian throne

1295  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Andrey

III is on the Russian throne – Marco Polo returns to Venice from his travels in Asia

1296  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Andrey

III is on the Russian throne

1297  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Andrey

III is on the Russian throne

1298  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Andrey

III is on the Russian throne

1299  – Edward I is on the throne of England – Philip IV is on the French throne – Andrey

III is on the Russian throne   

Leave a comment