1000-1099 A.D. - William the Conqueror





1000  – The Great Mosque in the port city of Kilwa Kisiwani, an island off the Swahili

Coast of Tanzania, is built during the 11th century, it is the oldest standing mosque on the East African coast and, with its sixteen domed and vaulted bays, has unique plan (unesco.com)


1009  – The Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the full Tanakh or

39 books of the Hebrew Bible, is written on parchment in Cairo (this text is

what the present-day Hebrew Bible uses as its standard, when the Dead Sea Scrolls

are found in 1947, they were able to confirm that it had not been corrupted or

changed since 250 B.C. – 135 B.C.), the Leningrad Codex is now housed in the

National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg

1011 – The first Tripitaka Koreana is constructed in Korea to house the woodblocks

containing the Buddhist cannon, it is being built during the Goryeo-Khitan War, a conflict between the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and the Khitan-led Liao dynasty of China on the border of modern day North Korea and China (the Tripitaka Koreana will be completed by 1087), the first Tripitaka Koreana is based primarily on the Northern Song Tripitaka completed in the 900s, but other scriptures published until then, such as the Khitan Tripitaka, were also consulted in order to identify items in need of revision and adjustment, the first Tripitaka Koreana contains around 6,000 volumes (around 81,000 woodblocks) (Wikipedia)

1014  – London Bridge is pulled down by King Olaf (account written by Snorri

Sturluson in 1225, and probably the inspiration for the nursery rhyme

“London Bridge is Falling Down”) (LTA)

1016  – Athelred (II) the Unready dies in London (buried in Old St. Paul’s Cathedral),

Canute becomes the first Dane crowned as king of the England

1018  – Duncan I “The Gracious” begins his rule of Strathclyde (in Scotland)

1020 – The Habsburg Castle is built around this year in what is now Habsburg, Switzerland

in the canton of Aargau, near the Aar River, by Count Radbot, of the nearby county

of Klettgau in the Duchy of Swabia, and Werner, Bishop of Strasbourg (it is

Radbot’s grandson, Otto II, that takes the name of the castle’s name as his own, his

line becomes the Habsburg Monarchy that rules from Vienna from 1278 to 1918

over the Austrian Empire, then the Austria-Hungary Empire), the throne of the

Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440

until their extinction in the male line in 1740, then ruled again from 1765 until

its dissolution un 1806

1023  – [GRAND EPOCH: First student at the College in the woods sees Lori and

begins writing the Ballad about her—a ghost that haunts the stairs]

1030 – William V, Duke of Aquitaine, dies and his son, William VI becomes Duke of

Aquitaine (d. 1038)

1034  – Duncan I “The Gracious” begins his rule of all Scotland

1035  – Canute dies (buried in Winchester Cathedral)

1038 – William VI, Duke of Aquitaine dies, and his half brother, Eudes becomes Duke of

Aquitaine (d. 1039)

1039  – Gruffydd ap Llywelyn becomes a ruler in Scotland – Conrad II is Holy Roman

Emperor (includes Burgundy and Germany) until he dies on June 4 and there’s a gap with no emperor until 1046 – Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine, dies and his half-brother, William VII, becomes Duke of Aquitaine (d. 1058)

1040  – Duncan I, king of Scotland, is killed in battle at Pitgavney on August 15, he is buried

on the small island of Iona off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland,

the island is mainly known for its abbey (see year 563)

1042  – Edward the Confessor becomes King of England

1050  – At this time the Berber peoples that were indigenous to northwest Africa since

2000 B.C. were still living in that area but were broken up into tribes and no longer

had  great kingdoms like they once had during the Roman era, there was division

among them and that is when Ibn Yasin arrived on the scene (around this year), he

lived in the ribat of Waggag ibn Zelu (ribat is Arabic for “fortification”) where he

met a chieftain named Yahya ibn Ibrahim, “who was in the search of a Malliki

teacher for his people, believing that orthodox customs were being forgotten. With

ibn Ibrahim, ibn Yasin was radicalized, and began to win over people to his faith,

calling for the abolishment of the current ruling government. At the time, the

Maghreb and Al-Andalus area was split between multiple kingdoms, in control of

three main factions, the Zenata in control of the north, the Masmuda holding central

Morocco, and the Sanhaja, concentrated in two main areas: the Western Sahara and

the Eastern Hills of the Maghreb. Ibn Yasin sought to consolidate the Berber

Muslims under one banner, his own, and to this end went to the nearby Lamtuna

people. There he found a large base of support, raising a large number of

people behind him, adherent to his views of the Quran and how it should be

interpreted and enforced. By reciting stories of the early life of the prophet Muhammad, Ibn Yasin preached that war and conquest were required for strict adherence to Islam. He further said that it was not enough to simply adhere to God’s law, but also necessary to eradicate opposition to it. Under Ibn Yasin’s ideology, anyone and anything outside Islamic law could be taken as “the enemy.” He specifically identified the Berber practice of tribalism as a major hindrance to the formation of a cohesive empire. He believed that it was absolutely necessary to unite the Muslim tribes, if they were to be forged into a powerful whole.” (thinkafrica.net)

1051 – For the Lamtuna leadership, Ibn Yasin’s new

1053 – Ibn Yasin’s first campaign takes place (thinkafrica.net) and now it “was the Arabs,

who enlisted Berber warriors for the conquest of Spain, who nevertheless gave

those peoples a single name, turning barbarian (speakers of a language other than Greek and Latin) into Barbar, the name of a race descended from Noah. While unifying the indigenous groups under one rubric, the Arabs began their Islamisation [of North Africa]. From the very beginning, Islam provided the ideological stimulus for the rise of fresh Berber dynasties. Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the greatest of those—the Almoravids and the Almohads, nomads of the Sahara and villagers of the High Atlas, respectively—conquered Muslim Spain and North Africa as far east as Tripoli (now in Libya).” (EB) 

1055  – Gruffydd ap Llywelyn becomes sovereign of all Wales   

1058 – William VII the Brave, Duke of Aquitaine, dies and is succeeded by his half-brother,

Guy Geoffrey, who took the title William VIII (d. 1086)

1059  – The pope decrees that lay investiture was unlawful in the eyes of the church (No

one, including kings can appoint clergy, only the pope/Rome) (BKQ 67)  

1060  – Edward the Confessor begins building Westminster Abbey and Westminster

Palace (1,028 years after the resurrection) Philip I (House of Carpet) becomes

king of France  

1061  – Hohenzollern House in Germany is mentioned, “Wezil et Burchardus de

Zolorin” (today there is a castle built in the 19th century) (see next: 1267)

(https://www.burg-hohenzollern.com/castle-history.html )

1062 – [GRAND EPOCH: The city-kingdom of Scyld sends a brand new codex to

each of the four Epochal kingdoms, it is titled Origins and Distinctions: A Modern Study on Averants, the gift is received very well by all monarchs/rulers and in turn, Scyld receives favor from all of them, making their city even more prosperous]

1065  – Edward the Confessor completes Westminster Abbey

1066  – Edward the Confessor dies (buried in Westminster Abbey), William the

Conqueror invades England, beginning his conquest on September 28, he defeats

Harold at the Battle of Hastings on October 14, then turns to Dover, he takes the

town, burns it, and builds fortifications there, before heading to London for his

coronation which takes place on Christmas day in Westminster Abbey (the House of

Normandy 1066—1154), same year he builds castles at Pevensey, Hastings, Dover,

Canterbury, Wallingford, Berkhamsted and London, Pevensey Castle was built as

soon as William landed in England for his conquest, it was built within the west gate

of a Roman fort called Anderida (later in history it was used to house military billets

and machine gun posts during WWII), at the time William built the castle, there was

an Anglo Saxon burgh there, or fortified town, on top of the Roman fort (CPSH 22)

1067 – William I the Conqueror is king of England –

William FitzOsbern, childhood friend of William the Conqueror and veteran at the

Battle of Hastings, begins work on his stone castle at Chepstow in south-east Wales

as a base for Norman penetration into Wales, “the castle was built in a strategic

position—a long, high cliff overlooking the River Wye and the place where the

Roman road from western England into South Wales forded the river. Its principle

building was a stone Great Hall, initially of two stories; this was altered in the 13th

century, but its original walls are still standing, making it Britain’s oldest surviving

stone castle building.” (CPSH 28)

1068 – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– York Castle is built by order of William the Conqueror, of which only the

now-ruined keep still stands and is known as “Clifford’s Tower, he also founds

castles at Warwick, Nottingham, Lincoln, Huntington and Cambridge

1069 – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– William the Conqueror launches his “harrying of the north” in response to a rebellion

1070  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1071  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– William FitzOsbern’s castle at Chepstow is completed, but he is killed in a battle in Flanders, and the castle is handed down to his son Roger Fitzwilliam (he loses it in 1075)

– Somewhere around this year, the Moroccan city of Marrakesh (English spelling) or Marrakech (French spelling) was founded by Yusuf ibn Tashufin of the dynasty of the Almoravids (Sunnite Muslims), and it survives as the Almoravid capital until it falls to the Almohad Caliphate in 1147

1072  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1073  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1074  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1075 – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– William the Conqueror founds Windsor Castle, During a doomed uprising against William the Conqueror, Robert Fitzwilliam loses Chepstow castle which reverts to the crown

1076 – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– William the Conqueror orders the rebuilding in stone of the original earthenwork castle in London, Norman monk Gundulf begins building Colchester Castle on the site of the Roman Temple of Claudius (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland 14)

1077  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1078  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1079  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1080  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– A group of volunteer medics establish a hospital in Jerusalem known as the Hospital of Saint John or the Hospitallers (The Templars 4)

1081  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1082  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– The Christian king Alfonso VI of Castile and León capture the town of Madrid from the Muslims and hereafter several kings of Castile spend time here

1083  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1084  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

1085  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

– Ludlow Castle (the Marcher Fortress) was built in Shropshire to subdue the

“Marches” (the English Welsh border), its first Lord was Rodger de Lacy, who built

one of the great stone keeps of the 12th century overlooking the River Terne (Castles,

Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland 31)

1086  – KINGS & RULERS: William I the Conqueror is king of England

The Song dynasty is powerful in China, female foot-binding becomes

widespread,  making women crippled so that they were “more desirable, ever

available to their masters, and not easily removed by others without a sedan chair or

cart…its adoption into wider society probably had something to do with the

Confucian reassertion of proprietary male attitudes” (History of China 326)

1087  – William the Conqueror dies (buried in the Abbey of St. Stephen, Caen,

France), his son William II Rufus becomes King of England and is crowned in

Westminster Abbey (during his rule, he establishes castles all along the Welsh


1088  – William II Rufus is king of England, and lays siege to Pevensey Castle and it survives

the siege (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland 22)

– Bologna in the Kingdom of Italy is an important center for legal studies, and becomes the first university in Europe  

1093  – William II Rufus is king of England

– Winchester Cathedral is consecrated and opened, one of the earliest graves in England is inside the church (see photo under Winchester Cathedral, this is where

Jane Austen will later be buried)

1094  – William II Rufus is king of England

1095  – William II Rufus is king of England 

– Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont (A History of the World, Map by Map 106)

1096  – William II Rufus is king of England

First Crusade begins (1,064 years after Jesus’ resurrection), “The chronicler Ibn  al-Athir wrote that at the time of the First Crusade, the mosque (al-Aqsa on the Temple Mount) was frequented by ‘imams, ulema, righteous men and ascetics, Muslims who had left their native lands and come to live a holy life in this August Spot.’ Under crusader rule, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque were

stripped of their Islamic sanctity: The Dome of the Rock became a church, while the

mosque was repurposed as a palace for the king of Jerusalem. The Christians called

the Dome of the Rock the ‘Temple of the Lord’ and they identified al-Aqsa with the

Temple of Solomon, in tribute to its historic location.” (TT 33)

1097  – William II Rufus, King of England, begins building Westminster Hall within

Westminster Palace, which is the only part of the Palace standing today (though it

has been significantly changed after being damaged by a fire in 1291, as the entire

complex burned down in 1834, the hall is now within the Houses of Parliament,

Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother lied in state there in 2002) (Castles, Palaces and

Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland 27)

1098  – William II Rufus is king of England

The Cistercian Order is formed when a group of monks of the more popular Benedictine monastery at Cîteaux near Dijon devote their lives to a purer form of religious life (The Templars 36)

1099  – William II Rufus is king of England

First Crusade ends and many parts of the Holy Land are now conquered, “During the Christian conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, this [the al-Aqsa Mosque] had been the venue of one of the worst massacres of Muslim women and children.” (The Templars 34)

– William II Rufus holds a banquet in Westminster Hall upon its completion, although he was reputedly not very impressed with the new building – declaring it a “mere bedchamber” (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland 27)

Leave a comment