1220 - 1249 A.D.

(Feature Photo: The Great Hall in Winchester, England, that Henry III, king of England constructed; Credit: Graham Horn, Wikimedia Commons)

  

1220 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Philip II Augustus is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne 

 

1221 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Philip II Augustus is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne 

 

1222 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Philip II Augustus is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne –

The University of Padua (law) is founded in the Kingdom of Italy 

 

1223 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Philip II Augustus dies and Louis VIII (The Lion) becomes king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne –

Chinggis Khan’s campaign ends in victory over the Muslim kingdom of Khwarasm (roughly Uzbekistan)

 

1224 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis VIII (The Lion) is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne 

 

1225 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis VIII (The Lion) is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne 

 

1226 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis VIII of France dies and Louis IX becomes king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne

 

1227 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne –

______________________________

How the Mighty Have Fallen (off their horse)

Genghis Khan dies after complications from falling off his horse

 ______________________________

 

1228

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis IX is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne –

 

1229

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis IX is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne –

The University of Toulouse is founded in France (History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 104) 

Juame of Aragon (northeastern Spain) captures Palma, the capital of Mallorca (island off the eastern coast of Spain) (History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 123)

 

1230

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis IX is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne – 

 

1231 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis IX is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne –

Mongol invasions of Korea begin 

 

1232

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is king of England – Louis IX is king of France – Yuri II is on the Russian throne

Carving begins on the woodblocks used to print the Buddhist cannon, they are carved and kept at the Tripitaka Koreana in Korea (Wikipedia and A Brief History of Korea)

 

1233

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne

 

1234 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne –

The Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun is published in Korea (Goryeo dynasty) and is the world’s first metal-block printed text 

 

1235

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne 

 

1236

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne

The University of Orleáns is founded (History of the World, Map by Map pg. 104) 

 

1237

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II is on the Russian throne

The Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus (now parts of modern-day Russia, Ukraine and Belarus) begins; The Mongols destroy many cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev, with the only major cities escaping destruction being Novgorod and Pskov; The invasion lasts until 1242 (the Mongols who invaded Russia and Hungary are known as Tartars to the people) (Encyclopedia Britannica)  

 

1238 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yuri II dies and Yaroslav II ascends to the Russian throne

______________________________

The Wrath of Khan 

Genghis Khan's grandson, Batu, begins expanding his empire

“Matthew [Paris] first reported that something was wrong in 1238. Merchants from northern Europe customarily sailed each year to Yarmouth, a fishing port on England’s east coast, to buy herring—but in 1238, Matthew noted, they never came, and rotting fish piled up in the port’s markets. That same year...

...ambassadors representing the Assassins—a widely feared Muslim sect based in Iran and Syria—arrived in England and France, and appealed for help...

...Matthew wrote, ‘on behalf of the whole of the people of the East.’ It was an extraordinary overture, given the relationship between Christians and Muslims at the time. But it was born of extraordinary circumstances. ‘A monstrous and inhuman race of men had burst forth from the northern mountains,’ the ambassadors announced, ‘and had taken possession of the extensive, rich lands of the East...’

...The invaders were called Tartars, and they came, Matthew reported, from ‘the Caspian mountains or the adjacent places’—northeastern limits of the world as it was portrayed on the mappaemundi. Led by a ferocious man named Khan...’

...the Tartars had overrun vast stretches of Muslim territory and had already ravaged greater Hungary—lands on the southwestern side of the Ural Mountains, that is, in present-day Russia. If Christians and Muslims didn’t immediately put aside their differences and work together to repel the marauders in Muslim territory, the ambassadors claimed, all of Europe itself would soon be under attack.” 

(The Fourth Part of the World, Pg. 46)

 

______________________________

 

Templar houses are being used to provide numerous sensitive services: they are used to distribute pensions promised by monarchs to wartime allies, and are party to agreements in which they operate as a mutually respected third party between warring rivals, they guarantee debts, ransom hostages and prisoners of war on credit, and can arrange very large loans—such as the one made in this year by Baldwin II, emperor of Constantinople, secured by his very own fragment of the True Cross (The Templars, pg. 239)

 

1239 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England

 

1240 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England

Genghis Khan's grandson, Batu, sacks the city of Kiev (in present-day Ukraine), as he expands the Golden Horde Empire (also called the Kipchack Khanate) in a series of brilliant military campaigns (Encyclopedia Britannica)

 

1241 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne –

The Thames floods six miles over its banks after an unusual amount of rain fall (written by Matthew Paris, a monk at St. Albans)

 

1242 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne –

The Mongol invasion of Kievan and Rus Ends, successfully taking over much of Russia, and all Rus principalities are forced to submit to Mongol rule and became vassals of the Golden Horde (some of which last until 1480), though the Golden Horde starts as part of the Mongol Empire, it later turns into a Turkicized Khanate and in 1312, it adopts Islam as its main religion (Wikipedia)

French and English forces clash at the Battle of Taillebourg on the bridge that spanned the Charente River, a strategic point on the route between northern and southern France, Henry III is trying to reclaim continental possessions in France, but he is defeated, and it marks the end of the Angevin Empire 

 

1243 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne 

 

1244 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yaroslav II is on the Russian throne 

 

1245 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England

 

1246 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Yaroslav II dies, and Sviatoslav ascends to the Russian throne  

 

1247 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Sviatoslav III is on the Russian throne 

 

1248 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Ferdinand III is king of Castile and Toledo (Spain) – Louis IX is on the French throne – Sviatoslav III is deposed and Mikhail briefly ascends to the Russian throne, but then Sviatoslav III is quickly restored 

The capture of Seville by Ferdinand III of Spain leaves Granada isolated

 

1249 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Henry III is on the throne of England – Louis IX is on the French throne – Sviatoslav III dies and Andrey II ascends the Russian throne