1600-1619 A.D - Galileo & The Thirty Years' War

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(Feature Photo: Galileo presenting his ideas before his peers; Credit: Wikimedia Commons) 

 

1600 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV "The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Boris (Godunovs line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Clement VIII is the 231st pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France (with the emergence of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the title is now traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch) 

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei, turns 36

April 25, The English playwright, William Shakespeare, turns 36

Tokugawa leyasu wins the Battle of Sekigehara to complete the reunification of Japan

December 31, The English East India Company is founded by John Watts

It is in the Baroque era (roughly between 1600-1750) that the notion of the orchestra really comes into its own, and composers are starting to layer instruments up in complex polyphony—different musical parts—and harmony; Opera also kicks off in a big way with Handel (1685-1759) and Purcell  (1659-1695) (classicfm.com)

 

1601 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Boris (Godunovs line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Clement VIII is the 231st pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei, turns 37

April 25, The English playwright, William Shakespeare, turns 37

 

1602 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Boris (Godunovs line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Clement VIII is the 231st pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 38

March 20, the Dutch East India Company is founded

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 38

April 25, William Harvey (1578-1657), the English physician, earns his doctorate at the University of Padua, the most prominent medical school in Europe (he will go on to discover that blood circulates to and from the heart) 

 

1603  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I (House of Tudor), queen of England, dies and James I (House of Stuart) ascends the English throne (Elizabeth had no children), Anne of Denmark (James’ wife) becomes queen consort – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Boris (Godunovs line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Clement VIII is the 231st pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France 

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 39

March 24, Elizabeth I, queen of England, dies at Richmond Palace in Surrey, she is buried in Westminster Abbey

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 39

July 29, James VI, king of Scotland and Ireland, is crowned as James I of England and his wife, Anne of Denmark, becomes queen consort of England, Ireland and Scotland; James is unpopular with the English people, they aren’t too happy with having the king of Scotland ruling them

  

1604 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen consort – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Boris (Godunovs line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Clement VIII is the 231st pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France 

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 40

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 40

August 19, The Treaty of London is signed at Somerset House; This treaty brings peace between Spain and England (Photo: Painting of the Somerset House Conference, Spanish delegation on the left, English delegation on the right, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

William Harvey (1578-1657), the English physician, marries Elizabeth Browne, daughter of Launcelot Browne, a London physician who is serving as physician to James I, King of England and Scotland

 

1605  

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Boris (Godunovs line), tsar of Russia, dies and Feodor becomes tsar, but then dies, and "False Dimitri" succeeds him – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Clement VIII, the 231st pope/bishop of Rome, dies, is briefly succeeded by Leo XI, who also dies, and is finally succeeded by Paul V, who becomes the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 41

March 5, Pope Clement VIII dies, aged 69, in Rome, Papal States

April 1, Leo XI becomes pope/bishop of Rome

April 8, Margaret of Austria, queen consort of Spain, has a son, Philip IV, who will become king in 1621 

April 23, Boris (Godunov line), tsar of Russia, dies, aged 52, and his 15 year-old son, Feodor II, succeeds him

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 41

April 27, Pope Leo XI dies, aged 69, in Rome, Papal States

May 16, Paul V becomes pope/bishop of Rome

June 10/20, Feodor II (Godunov line), tsar of Russia dies, aged 15, and a pretender to the throne, "False" Dimitri I (Rurik line, claimed), succeeds him

November 5, The Gunpowder Plot (a Catholic conspiracy against the new King James I and Parliament) is foiled

Robert Fludd (1574-1637), an English physician, earns a medical degree at Oxford, Robert’s writings “represent the culmination of the occult, as distinct from the scientific tendencies of the 17th century. Deriving ideas from such diverse sources as the Old Testament, the Jewish Kabbala, alchemy, astrology, sympathetic magic, and chiromancy, Fludd was primarily interested in establishing parallelisms between man and the world, both of which he viewed as images of God…In his view, medicine’s role is to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of the human body by clues provided, for example, by parallelisms between the mind of man and the light of the Sun.” (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Robert-Fludd)

 

1606 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – "False" Dimitri I (Rurik line, claimed), tsar of Russia, dies and Vasili IV (Rurik line) succeeds him – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 42

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 42

May 17, "False" Dimitri I (Rurik line, claimed), tsar of Russia, dies, aged 23 

May 19, Vasili IV (Rurik line) becomes tsar of Russia 

Rembrandt, the Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker is born in Leiden, Holland

 

1607

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Vasili IV (Rurik line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 43

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 43

Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas, is founded

William Harvey (1578-1657) becomes a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and remains active there until the end of his life

 

1608

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen consort – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Vasili IV (Rurik line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 44

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 44

 

1609

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV ("The Good King" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Vasili IV (Rurik line) is tsar of Russia – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 45; Galileo’s career takes a dramatic turn when in the spring he hears that in the Netherlands an instrument has been invented that shows distant things as though they are nearby, by trial and error, he quickly figures out the secret of the invention and makes his own three-powered spyglass from lenses for sale in spectacle makers’ shops, others have done the same, but what sets Galileo’s spyglass apart is that he quickly figures out how to improve the instrument; He teaches himself the art of lens grinding, and produces increasingly powerful telescopes, in August, he presents an eight-powered instrument to the Venetian Senate (Padua is in the Venetian Republic), and is rewarded with life tenure and a doubling of his salary, he is now one of the highest paid professors at the University of Padua (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Galileo-Galilei

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 45

The Bible is not in English yet, but it is in German and Italian (since 1471), it will be published in English by King James I in a couple years 

William Harvey (1578-1657), is appointed physician at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, a post he will keep until 1643

 

1610 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria is queen consort – Henry IV "The Good King" (Bourbon line), king of France, dies, and his son Louis XIII succeeds him – Vasili IV (Rurik line), tsar of Russia, is deposed, and Fedor Mstislavsky, a Russian Boyar, rules Russia as the head of the Zemsky government during Russia’s “Time of Troubles” as the Tsardom is in crisis – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 46

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 46

May 14, Henry IV "The Good King" (Bourbon line) dies, aged 56, in Paris, France, and his son Louis XIII "The Just" succeeds him

 

1611

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland, Anne of Denmark is queen consort – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is king of Spain, Margaret of Austria, queen consort, dies – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Fedor Mstislavsky, a Russian Boyar, rules Russia as the head of the Zemsky government during Russia’s “Time of Troubles” as the Tsardom is in crisis – Rudolf II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 47

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 47

October 3, Margaret of Austria, queen consort of Spain, dies, aged 26

The King James Bible is printed and released for the first time, it is the first Bible to be translated into English, it is authorized by King James I of England

 

1612

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Fedor Mstislavsky, a Russian Boyar, rules Russia as the head of the Zemsky government during Russia’s “Time of Troubles” as the Tsardom is in crisis – Rudolf II (Habsburg line), emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies, and his brother Matthias succeeds him – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

January 12, Rudolf II (Habsburg line), the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies, aged 59, in Prague, Bohemia

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 48

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 48

June 13, Matthias (Habsburg line), becomes the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire; He is Rudolf's brother, and the son of Maximillian II Holy Roman emperor (r. 1564-1576)  

 

1613 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia – Matthias (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 21, Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia 

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 49

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 49

 

1614 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia – Matthias (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

Thomas Bodley dies

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 50

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 50

 

1615 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia – Matthias (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 51

April 25, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 51

 

1616 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia – Matthias (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

Sir Walter Raleigh, while imprisoned in the Tower of London, makes the curious assertion that part of the Book of Enoch, “Which contained the course of the stars, their names and motions” had been discovered in Saba (Sheba) in the first century and was thus available to Origen and Tertullian, he says this information came from Origen, but no such statement has been found anywhere in extant versions of Origen https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Enoch

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 52

April 23, Shakespeare dies, just a few days before his 52nd birthday, in Stratford-upon-Avon

 

1617 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia – Matthias (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern is the 2nd Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 53

 

1618 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia – Matthias (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

Albert Fredrick of the House of Hohenzollern, the 2nd Duke of Prussia, dies, aged 65, on August 27, in Fischhausen and John Sigismund of the House of Hohenzollern becomes the 3rd Duke of Prussia; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 54

Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded by King James I, aged about 65 (b. 1552 or 1554)

William Harvey (1578-1657) becomes physician to King James I (and will continue on in this position upon Charles I’s accession in 1625)

The Thirty Years’ War begins (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire

 

1619 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I (House of Stuart) is king of England and (as James IV) of Scotland / Anne of Denmark is queen – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) becomes the tsar of Russia – Matthias (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

John Sigismund of the House of Hohenzollern the 3rd Duke of Prussia dies, aged 47, on December 23, and he is succeeded by George William, who becomes the 4th Duke of Prussia; Hohenzollern castle in the Swabian Alps, is fully built and inhabited by the Hohenzollern family

Phillip William is the Prince of Orange, which is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 55

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire