1620 - 1649 A.D. - Revolution & War

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(Feature Photo: painting of King Charles I of England by an unknown artist in the 1630s; Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

1620  

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I is king of England – Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V is the 233rd pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France (but in the 19th century, with the emergence of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the title "Prince of Orange" or "Princess of Orange" will begin to refer to the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch)  

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 56

November 11, Mayflower arrives at Cape Cod

 

1621 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I is king of England – Phillip III "The pious" (Habsburg line) dies and Phillip IV "The Great" succeeds him – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Paul V, pope/bishop of Rome, dies and Gregory XV succeeds him as the 234th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable 

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France 

January 28, Pope Paul V dies, aged 70 (b. 1550)

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 57

March 31, Phillip III "The Pious" (Habsburg line) emperor of the Spanish Empire, dies, aged 42, in Madrid, Spain, and his son, Phillip IV succeeds him

June 3, The Dutch West India Company founded

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire

 

1622 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I is king of England – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Gregory XV is the 234th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 58

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1623 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I is king of England – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Gregory XV, pope/bishop of Rome, dies and Urban VIII succeeds him as the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable 

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 59

March 7, It's Friday evening, and under cover of darkness, two Englishmen ride their mules discreetly into the heart of Madrid, looking for the very appropriately named Street of the Infanta...

"They dismount in front of the House of the Seven Chimneys, the residence of the English Ambassador, the Earl of Bristol. One of them knocks on the door and presents himself to the servant as Mr. Thomas Smith. He goes inside carrying his own luggage and quickly explains he has hurt his leg and cannot climb the stair

(Spain, The Center of the World 1519-1682, Pg. 417) 

(Photo: Charles I, Prince of Wales, in 1623, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

July 8, Pope Gregory dies, aged 69 (b. 1554), in Rome, Papal States 

August 6, Urban VIII becomes pope/bishop of Rome 

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1624 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I is king of England and Ireland, and (as James IV) King of Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 60

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1625 

RULERS & ROYALTY: James I, king of England and Ireland, and (as James IV) King of Scotland, dies and his son, Charles I, succeeds him – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 61

William Harvey (1578-1657) continues on as physician to Charles I, he will stay a staunch royalist during the Glorious Revolution

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire

A painting is done by the Dutch School of Art in 1625 of a joust on the Hofvijver lake in The Hague, a city in the Netherlands (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

1626 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 62

St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome is completed (now part of the Vatican buildings)

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1627

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 63

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1628

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 64

William Harvey (1578-1657), English physician to King Charles I, published a book titled, De Motu Cordis, or Discovery of Circulation, in which he tells of his discovery that the blood circulates to and from the heart, until now it had been thought that the heart made blood and irrigated the body

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

Shah Jahan is crowned emperor and the golden age of Mughal India begins (History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 149) 

 

1629

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 65

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1630

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 66

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden intervenes, turning the tide in favor of the Protestants (History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 149) 

 

1631

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 67

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1632  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 68

The Taj Mahal is commissioned by the Mugahl emperor Shah Jahan to house the tomb of his wife, it also houses himself

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1633 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 69

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1634 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is captured by Württemberger troops midway through the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and falls under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 70

John Dwight leaves Dedham, Essex, England with his wife Hannah, and sons Timothy and John Dwight to come to America where their town is called Dedham, their descendants include many politicians, businessmen, educators and clergy, as well as Josiah Whitney born in 1819 who went on to be a prominent geologist in America, Mount Whitney is named after him

William Harvey (1578-1657), an English physician to the king, is asked to be involved in a case in which four women are being accused of being witches, normally any suspicious behavior or marking on the skin is enough to convict women of being witches, but William treated the case with an open mind, and found scientific explanations for the evidence allegedly showing witchcraft, and all the women were found innocent (https://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Harvey)

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1635  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome 

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 71

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1636  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 72

William Harvey (1578-1657), an English physician to King Charles I is sent on as a doctor on a diplomatic mission to the Holy Roman Emperor (German Empire), Ferdinand II, the traveling takes almost a year, during which he meets renowned German professor of medicine Casper Hofmann at Nürnberg and attempts to demonstrate the circulation of the blood to him, he also visits Italy to look for paintings for the English royal collection, he becomes friends with Robert Fludd, an important English physician and philosopher whose primary interest concerned natural magic, and Thomas Hobbes, a famous political philosopher, he was also acquainted with John Aubrey, the 17th century biographer, who gave an account of Harvey in his manuscript Brief Lives (https://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Harvey)

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1637

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand II (Habsburg line), emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies, and his son Ferdinand III, succeeds him – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Ferdinand II (Habsburg line), emperor of the Spanish Empire dies, aged 58, and his son, Ferdinand III succeeds him

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 73

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1638  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 74

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

 

1639  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 4th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 75

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1640 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

George William of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 4th Duke of Prussia, dies, aged 45, on December 1, and his son Fredrick William "The Great Elector" becomes the 5th Duke of Prussia; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 76

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1641  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome 

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 77

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1642 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

January 8, Galileo Galilei dies, aged 77, in Arcetri, Italy (b. 1564)

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1643  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I (House of Stuart) is king of England, Ireland, and Scotland – Phillip IV "The Great" (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Spanish Empire – Louis XIII "The Just" (Bourbon line) is king of France – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III (Habsburg line) is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire – Urban VIII is the 235th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

January 4, Isaac Newton is born in Lincolnshire, England (other sources say December 25, 1642) (d. 1727)

William Harvey (1578-1657), the English Physician who discovered that blood circulates to and from the heart, is removed from his post as physician at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital (which he has held since 1607) by the parliamentary authorities because he is a staunch supporter of the monarchy

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1644

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I is king of England – Phillip IV is emperor of the Spanish Empire (Habsburg line) – Louis XIII "The Just" dies and his son Louis XIV "The Sun King" (Bourbon line) succeeds him – Michael I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (Habsburg line) – Pope Urban VIII dies and Innocent X becomes the 236th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

January 4, Isaac Newton, the future English writer, mathematician, alchemist, theologian, physicist and astronomer, turns 1

May 14, Louis XIII, king of France (Bourbon line), aged 41, (b. 1601) and his son, Louis XIV succeeds him

July 29, Pope Urban VIII dies, aged 76, (b. 1568) in Rome, Lazio, Papal States

September 15, Innocent X becomes pope/bishop of Rome

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

Van der Hagen completes a map of the coast of Flanders (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

 

1645  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I is king of England – Phillip IV is emperor of the Spanish Empire (Habsburg line) – Louis XIV "The Sun King" is king of France (Bourbon line) – Michael I tsar of Russia, dies, and Alexis I (Romanov line) succeeds him – Ferdinand III is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (Habsburg line) – Innocent X is the 236th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

January 4, Isaac Newton, the future English writer, mathematician, alchemist, theologian, physicist and astronomer, turns 2

July 22, Michael I, tsar of Russia, dies, aged 49, and his son, Alexis I succeeds him at 16 years-old

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1646  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I is king of England – Phillip IV is emperor of the Spanish Empire (Habsburg line) – Louis XIV "The Sun King" is king of France (Bourbon line) – Alexis I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (Habsburg line) – Innocent X is the 236th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

Fredrick Henry is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

January 4, Isaac Newton, the future English writer, mathematician, alchemist, theologian, physicist and astronomer, turns 3

The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1647  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I is king of England – Phillip IV is emperor of the Spanish Empire (Habsburg line) – Louis XIV "The Sun King" is king of France (Bourbon line) – Alexis I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (Habsburg line) – Innocent X is the 236th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

January 4, Isaac Newton, the future English writer, mathematician, alchemist, theologian, physicist and astronomer, turns 4

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The Next Prince of Orange

March 14, Fredrick Henry, the Prince of Orange, which is a principality located in southern France, dies, aged 63, at the Hague in the Dutch Republic, and his son, William II, succeeds him

William II will become the father of William III, king of England

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The Thirty Years’ War continues (1618-1648) and is waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

  

1648  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I is king of England – Phillip IV is emperor of the Spanish Empire (Habsburg line) – Louis XIV "The Sun King" is king of France (Bourbon line) – Alexis I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (Habsburg line) – Innocent X is the 236th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

William II is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

January 4, Isaac Newton, the future English writer, mathematician, alchemist, theologian, physicist and astronomer, turns 5

The Taj Mahal mausoleum complex is completed

The Protestant Reformation ends  

The Thirty Years’ War ends (1618-1648), it was waged mainly within the Holy Roman Empire 

 

1649  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Charles I is king of England until he is executed in January and Parliament/The Council of State begins ruling England – Phillip IV is emperor of the Spanish Empire (Habsburg line) – Louis XIV "The Sun King" is king of France (Bourbon line) – Alexis I (Romanov line) is tsar of Russia – Ferdinand III is emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (Habsburg line) – Innocent X is the 236th pope/bishop of Rome

Fredrick William "The Great Elector" of the House of Hohenzollern, is the 5th Duke of Prussia, which is in Poland; Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps of Germany, is fully built and habitable, and is under Habsburg control

William II is the Prince of Orange; The Principality of Orange is located in southern France

January 4, Isaac Newton, the future English writer, mathematician, alchemist, theologian, physicist and astronomer, turns 6

January 30, King Charles I of England is executed outside the Banqueting House