1570-1589 - The 70s and 80s, Tudor Style

This is where England keeps poking Spain.

And then Spain sends an Armada. 

(Feature Photo: Known as the "Armada Portrait," this painting depicts Queen Elizabeth I after her victory over the Spanish Armada)

 

1570 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Charles IX is king of France – Phillip II is king of Spain – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor/German Emperor – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House of Jagiellon, is king of Poland – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia, which is part of Poland (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar), no tsarina – St. Pius V is pope

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 6

April 26, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 6

May 4, King Philip II of Spain, marries (by proxy) his niece, Anna of Austria, the daughter of his brother, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor; Anna of Austria is his fourth wife (the other three died)

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I of England turns 37

Bess of Hardwick (who is currently married to the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury who lives at Chatsworth House) once again joins Mary Queen of Scots, who is being held captive at the house, and the two continue to work on the Oxburgh Hangings together (these now hang in the King’s Room of Oxburgh Hall in Norfolk, England) (Wikipedia)   

The first atlas is compiled by Abraham Ortelius, a mapmaker in Antwerp, Belgium, which is still part of the Holy Roman Empire, right now; Ortelius assembled cartography’s best and brightest to create the atlas, they comprised of astronomers, clergymen, medical doctors, mathematicians, artists, and seafarers, they were Catholics from Italy, Calvinists from the Netherlands, and Lutherans (including Mercator) from Germany, but because of the Reformation, “Not a few of them were on the run. Some…fled Flanders for the Rhineland; others…escaped to East Frisia, and still others…fled to England.” Still, even with all the persecution, the atlas turns out to be a great success, entitled Theater of the World, its first edition has 53 sheets, but by its 1612 edition, it will have 164 sheets (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 53)

“Between 1570 and 1648, the German lands went from a place of flourishing learning to a decimated ruin,” this is due to the Protestant-Catholic religious “Thirty Years War,” some lands will lose almost half their population to fighting, famine and plague (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 58)

Witch hunts in Germany continue, they will reach their height between 1585-1635 (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 60) 

  

1571 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Charles IX is king of France – Phillip II is king of Spain – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor/German Emperor – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House of Jagiellon, is king of Poland – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia, which is part of Poland (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar), Marfa Sobakina is tsarina for sixteen days – St. Pius V is pope

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 7

April 26, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 7

September 1, King Philip II of Spain declares bankruptcy, the first sovereign to default in history; His wars with the Dutch Netherlands and France have drained him, and the production of the Crown's silver deposits in the Americas have been slow since the 1550's since they are still using primitive extraction methods and all the accessible surface deposits have been exhausted

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I of England turns 38

October 28, Tsar Ivan IV marries Marfa Sobakina, but she dies sixteen days later of an illness

Bess of Hardwick (who is currently married to the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury who lives at Chatsworth House) joins Mary Queen of Scots, who is being held captive at the house, for the last time, and the two continue to work on the Oxburgh Hangings together (these now hang in the King’s Room of Oxburgh Hall in Norfolk, England) (Wikipedia)    

 

1572  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Charles IX is king of France – Phillip II is king of Spain – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor/German Emperor – Sigismund II Augustus, of the House of Jagiellon, is king of Poland – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia, which is part of Poland (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar), Anna Koltovskaya becomes tsarina – St. Pius V is pope until May 1 when Gregory XIII becomes pope

At the beginning of 1572, The earl of Leicester presents Elizabeth I, queen of England, with a jeweled bracelet in which is set a miniature timepiece, and the Queen of England wears the first-ever wristwatch

February 15, Galileo Galilei, The Polish Astronomer, turns 8

April 26, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 8

As part of her summer progress, Queen Elizabeth I of England visits the home of the earl of Leicester, Kenilworth Castle in Warwickshire; It is here that in succeeding years she is entertained with pageants, plays and dancing, which she loved (Tudors, by Peter Ackroyd, Pg. 371) (Photo: Kenilworth Castle in the year 2014, Credit: Nilfanion, Wikimedia Commons)

August 23-24, Paris: The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre—Catholic mob violence directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) takes place; King Charles IX orders the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders and the massacre spreads, the death toll estimates range anywhere from 5,000 to 30,000 (Germany, A Nation in Her Time, Pg. 49)

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I of England turns 39

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A Battle on Ice Skates

The Dutch erupt in rebellion once again against King Philip II of Spain and rally against his troops in the Netherlands; The Duke of Alba, head of the Spanish troops, is now old and sick, and his son is inexperienced, so they lose control over the area, in fact, during one skirmish...

"A contingent of crack troops was devastated when it tried to engage a handful of armed Dutch vessels trapped in the ice. Suddenly, a group of musketeers emerged from the boats wearing skates and slipped fast and sure across the frozen sea, firing volley after volley at their veteran Spanish assailants, who slithered and skidded helplessly. Alba commended that 'it is the most novel business that has ever been heard of' and ordered 7,000 pairs of skates made."

(Spain, The Center of the World 1519-1682, Pgs. 180-181)

 

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The map Cities of the World is published; Created by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg; It is unlike Ortelius’ Theater of the World map in 1570, which shows only nations in relation to each other; Braun’s and Hogenberg’s map shows where all the cities are, mainly those in the Roman Empire—although it does show major cities in Ireland, England, Spain, France, Italy and parts of Greece and just a bit of North Africa as well (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pgs. 55-56)

An illustration of the island of Kilwa Kisiwani off the Swahili coast of present-day Tanzania, Africa, is created; It shows the port of Aden and three other ports; Kilwa Kisiwani has gained great wealth from trading with China, India and Arabia (Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1573 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Koltovskaya is tsarina

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 9

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 9

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 40

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1574 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Koltovskaya is tsarina until Ivan divorces her this year and sends her to a convent

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 10

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 10

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 41

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

  

1575  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar), Anna Vasilchikova becomes tsarina

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 11

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 11

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King Philip II of Spain Goes Broke

September 1, King Philip II of Spain declares bankruptcy, the first sovereign to default in history; His wars with the Dutch Netherlands and France have drained him, and the production of the Crown's silver deposits in the Americas have been slow since the 1550's, as they are still using primitive extraction methods and all the accessible surface deposits have been exhausted

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September 7, Queen Elizabeth I of England turns 42

Queen Elizabeth I stays at Longleat House during her summer progress only eight years after the original house burned to the ground; When she visits, the house is only two stories, the third will probably be added after Sir John Thynne’s death in 1580 (Castles, Palaces, and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland, Pg. 120) (Photo: Longleat House in 2012, Credit: Saffron Blaze, Wikimedia Commons)

Construction begins on the basilica inside El Escorial (apparently his bankruptcy didn't effect the building of his palace-monastery) Philip II of Spain’s palace 28 miles outside of Madrid, it will become a place where one hundred Hieronymite monks will spend 8 hours a day singing hymns and praying for the Habsburg souls, “From the outset, Philip wanted this supreme statement about Habsburg and Spanish piety to express the new orthodoxy of the Council of Trent.” (Spain, The Center of the World 1519-1628 Pg. 139)

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

  

1576 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Anna Vasilchikova is tsarina until Ivan divorces her this year and sends her to a convent

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 12

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 12

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 43 

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

  

1577  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/no tsarina

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 13

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 13

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 44

“According to William Harrison, an Essex clergyman writing in 1577, the Elizabethan builder, ‘desireth to set his house aloft on a hill, to be seen afar off, and cast his beams of stately and curious workmanship into every quarter of the country.’” Many of the great houses in England are being built at this time, it is both a collaboration and a competition between the nobility, Queen Elizabeth I had pretty much handed off the building craze to her subjects, as her father, King Henry VIII built so many royal houses she really didn’t need to build anything herself (Devices and Desires, Bess of Hardwick and the Building of Elizabethan England Intro)

The library at Longleat House in Wiltshire, England, is greatly expanded by Sir John Thynne’s uncle, William, a clerk in Henry VIII’s kitchens, and by this year, it holds 85 books and manuscripts—a large number for that time; Today, there are eight libraries, including the beautiful Bishop Ken’s library, which runs on the top floor along the entire east front of the house (Castles, Palaces and Stately Homes of Britain and Ireland Pg. 121)

Sir Francis Drake has been introduced to Elizabeth by this time and she unofficially encourages his activities against Spain; In December, Drake sets off on what will become his voyage around the world (the first Englishman to do so),

plundering both Spanish vessels and possessions in South America and the East Indies;

It has been estimated that the total value of Drake’s booty was worth about 450,000 pounds, which would be many millions at today’s rates (British Kings and Queens Pg. 257)

The Hohenzollern Castle, in the Swabian Alps in Germany, is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1578  

RULERS & ROYALTY:  Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar), no tsarina

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 14

April 1, William Harvey, an English physician, is born in Folkestone, Kent, (he is the one that will discover that the blood pumping from the heart actually circulates back to the heart) (d. 1657)

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 14

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 45

The Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1579 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Vasilisa Melentyeva is tsarina (possibly? Not many records of her), but she is discovered as having an affair this same year and is sent to a convent

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 15

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 15

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 46 

Father Francis Fletcher, chaplain on the Golden Hinde writes of Natives in Bodega Bay, California  

The Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps in Germany is fully built and habitable, and held by the Hohenzollern Family

 

1580 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/no tsarina Baroque era begins (approx.)

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 16

April 26, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 16

June 27, As a terrible influenza rages across Spain, King Philip II watches his troops parade before him; They will soon cross the border into Portugal to claim the Portuguese crown for himself

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Jesuits Arrive in Protestant England

During the summer, much to the alarm of the English government, "Jesuit priests from Rome began arriving in England. Their mission, which was to preserve and augment the Catholic faith, was headed by the radical priest Robert Parsons and the devout and inspirational figure of Father Campion, who would be largely responsible for the remarkable  success of the Jesuit mission and the upsurge in Catholic resistance during the coming decade, not to mention the patriotic reaction which came in its wake." (The Life of Elizabeth I, Pg. 333)

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September 7, Queen Elizabeth I of England turns 47

October 26, Anna of Austria, wife of King Philip II of Spain, dies of influenza eight months after giving birth to their last daughter, Maria; She was 30 years old

Sir Francis Drake returns to England after spending three years of plundering Spanish vessels; He becomes a national hero

Pope Gregory XIII reissues his predecessor's bull against Queen Elizabeth I of England (she's Protestant) 

 

1581 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia from the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar), Maria Nagaya is tsarina

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 17

April 26, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 17

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 48 years old

September 12, King Philip II of Spain is crowned king of Portugal as well; He and his Spanish Empire are at the height of their power; Philip takes up residence in Portugal's capital, Lisbon

Sir Francis Drake (Queen Elizabeth’s pirate against the Spanish) is knighted

In this year, Tsar Ivan IV suggests to Queen Elizabeth I of England that he can divorce his wife and marry her, but those plans never materialize

  

1582 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth is queen of England – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second and last Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar)/Maria Nagaya is tsarina

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 18

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The Pope Tells Philip To Go Big

In April, King Philip II of Spain, now also king of Portugal, "'Following the custom of the Kings of Portugal', he himself accompanies the 'five great ships of the West Indies fleet...out of harbour' and 'breakfasted on board his royal galley'...Philip seems to have begun finally to realize that his wealth depended on an Atlantic world.

"Philip now began to focus on his foreign policy on the colonial struggles in America, Asia and Africa, where privateers from northern Europe were waging a king of guerrilla warfare against his possessions.

"It seemed that the bellicose English, with their heretical Queen Elizabeth, were the greatest threat of all, 

"...a nation of natural pirates...

"...who gave help to the Dutch and who had dared to try and settle in the Americas, founding the Virginia Colony, named after their Virgin Queen'. Philip had once written to the ailing [Duke of] Alba that...

"...the Pope 'has insisted many times that he would like us to undertake the conquest of England...for which purpose it would be good to get a foothold in Ireland."

(Spain, The Center of the World 1519-1682, Pgs. 207-208)

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April 26, William Shakespeare, the English Playwright, turns 18

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 49

  

1583 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth is queen of England – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar), Maria Nagaya is tsarina

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 19

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 19

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 50

  

1584 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth is queen of England – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Ivan IV is tsar of Russia (first tsar) until March 28 when he dies and his son, Feodor I becomes tsar/Maria Nagaya is tsarina (until March 28)

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 20

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 20

March 28, Tsar Ivan IV dies and his son Feodor I becomes tsar

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 51

Queen Elizabeth I grants a charter for Sir Walter Raleigh to explore, colonize, and rule any “remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince of inhabited by Christian People,” in return for one-fifth of all the gold and silver that might be mined there, the charter says he has seven years to establish a settlement or else lose the right to do so (Raleigh himself never visited North America)

 

1585 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 15, The Polish astronomer, Galileo Galilei turns 21

April 26, The English playwright, William Shakespeare turns 21

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 52 years old

  

1586 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth is queen of England – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 22

April 26, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 22

June 6, Sir Francis Drake raids St. Augustine, Florida, burning it, and driving surviving Spanish settlers into the wilderness; However, he doesn’t have sufficient forces or authority to establish an English settlement, so he leaves the area

September 7, Elizabeth I, queen of England, turns 53

“Witchcraft accusations suggested that a general crisis was near, and contemporaries, who assumed that history could easily be reversed, sensed the impending catastrophe. ‘Darkness and barbarism threaten and are spreading across the beautiful land of Europe,’ wrote humanist chronicler Marcus Welser in a 1586 letter to his friend Justus Lipsius.” Justus Lipsius is a professor at the University of Leiden, in present day South Holland, Netherlands, he is best known for his painstaking edition of Tacitus (Germany, A Nation in its Time, Pg. 61)

 

1587  

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth I is queen of England – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 8, Mary Queen of Scots is executed on a scaffold in the great hall of Fotheringhay castle on Queen Elizabeth I's orders; She is 44 years old

February 15, Galileo Galilei, the Polish astronomer, turns 23

April 26, William Shakespeare, the English playwright, turns 23

July 29, Believing that King Philip II of Spain would successfully invade and take over England with his Armada next year, Pope Sixtus V signs a treaty with Spain, consents to Philip nominating whoever he pleases as the ruler of England, so long as that person will agree to restore the Catholic faith there (The Life of Elizabeth I, Pg. 384)

September 7, Elizabeth I, queen of England, turns 54

The first man of the future German arms company, Arndt Krupp, shows up in the records of Essen, Germany (This family goes on to provide much of the weaponry for WWI and WWII) (The Arms of Krupp, Pg. 23)

The author of Don Quixote, Miguel de Cervantes, arrives in Seville, Spain, and is commissioned by the Sheriff of the Royal Audiencia--who is in charge of securing provisions for the Invincible Armada--to go throughout the province of Andalusia to procure food and supplies from the townspeople; He has the power to break open locked property in search of grain, and impound wheat that will then be ground into ship's biscuit to supply the Armada (Spain, The Center of the World 1519-1682, Pg. 227) 

 

1588 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth is queen of England – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 15, Galileo Galilei turns 24

April 26, William Shakespeare turns 24 

July 29, The Spanish Armada (fleet of war ships) sights the most southerly part of England, “As the Armada sailed on, warning beacons burst into flame along the clifftops, conveying the news to the English fleet, massed at Plymouth, that the Spaniard had been sighted.” Phillip II of Spain had sent the Armada after the English had been plundering their ships and burning their settlements, like St. Augustine in Florida a couple of years ago, “Ironically enough,…while king-consort to Queen Mary, Philip II had advised the Privy Council to strength the navy as England’s best line of defense, so there were 197 ships at anchor in Plymouth harbor.” (Spain, the Center of the World 1519-1682,  Pg. 235)

July 30, "Not yet knowing that the English had gained the upper hand, the Queen moved on July 30 to St. James's Palace, where her security could be better assured than at Richmond, and which Lord Hunsdon, who had been designated responsible for the Queen's security when she was in the capital, immediately surrounded by a cordon of 2000 armed guards. However, Elizabeth was 'not a wit dismayed' at her peril." (The Life of Elizabeth I, Pg. 391)

Philip II of Spain, who had once been king-consort of England (having been married to the late Queen Elizabeth I’s sister, Queen Mary I) is living in his grand palace-monastery called El Escorial, which is just outside of Madrid; There he awaits to hear news of his Armada’s victory (hopefully) 

July 31, At daybreak, the Spanish sight the main body of English ships bearing down on them

August 9, Queen Elizabeth I of England gives her most famous and rousing speech to her troops while wearing her silver breastplate

August 20, The Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London attend a packed service at St. Paul's cathedral to give thanks for their victory against the Spanish invasion

September 7, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, turns 55

September 21, The first returning ships begin to struggle into Spanish harbors, and the first of the survivors begin to trickle home over the following weeks; 180 had died on the flagship alone; "A monk at Escorial described the 'strange emotion felt in all Spain for such a sad and notable disaster...and everyone dressed in mourning and there was nothing but tears and laments throughout the land' (Spain, The Center of the World 1519-1682, Pg. 237)

10 year-old William Harvey (1578-1657), the English physician who will discover that blood circulates from, and back, to the heart, starts attending the King’s School in Canterbury, England (until 1593)

  

1589 

RULERS & ROYALTY: Elizabeth is on the English throne – Philip II is king of Spain – Albert Fredrick is Duke of Prussia (he is the second Duke of Prussia of the Hohenzollern family) – Feodor I is tsar of Russia

February 15, Polish astronomer Galileo Galilei turns 25 

April 26, English playwright William Shakespeare turns 25 

September 7, Queen Elizabeth I turns 56

September 13, Philip II, King of Spain, dies, and his son, Philip III, becomes king of Spain at 20 years old