1900-1909 - C.S. Lewis, Tolkien & The Edwardians







William McKinley is the president (R) – Queen Victoria is on the throne of England – Lord Salisbury (Robert Gascoyne-Cecil 3rd Marquess of Salisbury) is Prime Minister of England (Part of Cecil Rhode’s Secret Society “The Cecil Bloc” founded in 1891)

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 9 

May 15, Prescott Bush turns 5 years old (he becomes the father of Pres. George H. W. Bush and grandfather to Pres. George W. Bush)

August 22, Cornelia Stuyvesant Vanderbilt (1900-1976) is born to George Washington Vanderbilt and his wife, Edith Stuyvesant, in Biltmore, North Carolina, where the Vanderbilts have built their 250 room country mansion, Biltmore Estate, possibly the largest domestic dwelling ever built in the US

“Between 1900-1914, London underwent a public transport revolution that facilitated the development of the outlying areas into new residential suburbs. The electrification of the railways and tramways, and the development of the deep tube and bus network precipitated major population shifts. In the 10 years from 1901 over 55,000 people, 12% of the population, migrated from inner London, most to the new suburbs. Journeys doubled over the same period from 142 to 250 per head of population.” (Lost London, Pg. 27)

The Boer War continues

The region of Hollywood in California now has a post office, newspaper, hotel and two markets, with a population of 102,479; It lies 10 miles away from Los Angeles

A photo is taken outside the La place de I’Opera in Paris (see the postcard on desk)

December 14, “German physicist Max Planck publishes his groundbreaking study of the effect of radiation on a ‘blackbody’ substance, and the quantum theory of modern physics is born. Through physical experiments, Planck demonstrated that energy, in certain situations, can exhibit characteristics of physical matter. Planck’s theory held that radiant energy is made up of particle-like components, known as ‘quanta.’ The theory helped to resolve previously unexplained natural phenomena such as the behavior of heat in solids and the nature of light absorption on an atomic level.” (he receives the Noble Prize in physics for his work on blackbody radiation in 1918) Later, other scientists, such as Albert Einstein, develop quantum mechanics, a mathematical application of the quantum theory (history.com) (Read more about Plank in The Self-Aware Universe, by Amit Goswami, published later in 1995—I was 11 or 12 years old at the time—page 25)

During the first part of the twentieth century, X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structures of small molecules. Crystallography involves shining a beam of X-rays onto a crystal of a chemical; the rays scatter by a process called diffraction. If photographic film is placed behind the crystal, then the diffracted X-rays can be detected by examining the exposed film. The pattern of diffraction can, after the application of strenuous mathematics, indicate the position of each and every atom in the molecule…but there was a big problem: the more atoms in a molecule, the harder the mathematics, and the harder the task of crystallizing the chemical in the first place. Because proteins have dozens of times more atoms than the molecules typically examined by crystallography, that makes the problem dozens of times more difficult. But some people have dozens more times the perseverance than the rest of us.” (DBB 12, now see the year 1958 and J.C. Kendrew)

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 2 years old, he’s growing up in Ireland



William McKinley is president of the USA (is shot on September 6)/ Theodore Roosevelt becomes vice president between March 4 - September 14, on which date he becomes president of the USA - Queen Victoria dies on January 22 and Edward VII ascends the throne (Edwardian Era begins)/Lord Salisbury (Robert Gascoyne-Cecil 3rd Marquess of Salisbury) is Prime Minister of England (Part of Cecil Rhode’s Secret Society)

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 10

January 22, Queen Victoria of England dies

May 15, Prescott Bush turns 6 years old (he becomes the father of Pres. George H. W. Bush and grandfather to Pres. George W. Bush), his father, Samuel Prescott Bush (1863-1948), the great grandfather of George W. Bush) returns to Columbus, Ohio and becomes a general manager of Buckeye Steel Castings Company of Columbus, which manufactures railway parts; it is currently run by Frank Rockefeller, the brother of the oil magnate John D. Rockefeller (Frank has been invested in the company since 1892); Among Buckeye Steel’s clients were the railroads controlled by E.H. Harriman (the Bush and Harriman families will be closely associated until the end of World War II)

March 18, Manly P. Hall is born (d. 1990) in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada; He goes on to write many books on Freemasonry and becomes a Mason himself in 1973

The Boer War Continues

“The New College” period of the “Society of the Elect,” originally started by Cecil Rhodes in 1891, begins, and lasts until 1922, it centers around Alfred Milner

September 6, President McKinley (USA) attends the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, and is shot by Leon Czolgosz

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 3 years old, he’s growing up in Ireland

December 5, Walt Disney is born (d. 1966) in Chicago, Illinois, USA   



PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & KINGS: Theodore Roosevelt is president – Edward VII is king/Lord Salisbury is prime minister of England until July 11 when Arthur Balfour (Earl of Balfour and Lord Salisbury’s nephew by his sister) becomes prime minister (Lord Salisbury dies next year)

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 11 

May 15, Prescott Bush turns 7 years old (he becomes the father of Pres. George H. W. Bush and grandfather to Pres. George W. Bush), his father, Samuel Prescott Bush is working for John D. Rockefeller’s steel castings company that makes parts for trains

July 28, Karl Popper is born (d. 1994) in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, he goes on to write a book on how Prussia and the House of Hohenzollern brought about the rise of totalitarianism in his book The Open Society and its Enemies (see 1938)

Charles Booth completes his magisterial 17-volume work The Life and Labour of the People in London

Edward Huntington (Huntington Library and Gardens) transfers his headquarters to Los Angeles

Beatrix Potter’s The Tale of Peter Rabbit is published by Frederick Warne & Co.

Cecil Rhodes dies, aged 48, in Muizenberg, Cape Country (southern Africa) on March 26 (b.1853) “By 1902, when the leadership of the Cecil Bloc had fallen from the masterful grasp of Lord Salisbury into the rather indifferent hands of Arthur Balfour (now prime minister of England), and Rhodes had died, leaving Alfred Milner as chief controller of his vast estate, the Milner Group was already established and had a most hopeful future. The Long period of Liberal government which began in 1906 cast a temporary cloud over that future, but (see 1916) (The Anglo-American Establishment Intro)

Arthur Balfour, who is both in charge of Cecil Rhode’s Secret Society AND prime minister of England, passes the Education Act of 1902, also known as the Balfour Act, it standardizes the pattern of education in England and Wales for the next four decades and is supported by the Church of England and the Catholic Church—this comes the same year as John D. Rockefeller’s General Education Board (see below)

John D. Rockefeller founds the General Education Board, a non-governmental, philanthropic foundation that (according to Wikipedia) “primarily to support the higher education and medical schools in the United States, and to help rural white and black communities in the South, as well as modernize farming practices in the South,” the board spent all its money by 1950 and closed in 1964 (Wikipedia)

Alfred Milner becomes the 1st Governor of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony in Africa on June 23 (until 1905)

The Boer War ends

Big Basin State Park established, it is the first California state park and first preserved redwoods

The United States Census Bureau is formed on July 1 and is now based in Suitland Maryland (see 1941)

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 4 years old, he’s growing up in Ireland

December 5, Walt Disney turns 1

December, The Hollywood Hotel opens, in Hollywood, California; It was built by early Hollywood developer H.J. Whitley



PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & KINGS: Theodore Roosevelt is president – Edward VII is king of England/Arthur Balfour (Earl of Balfour) is prime minister of England (he is Lord Salisbury’s nephew)

Alfred Milner is the 1st Governor of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony in Africa, and in charge of Cecil Rhode’s vast diamond estate in Africa

The Rhodes Scholarship is established in Oxford, it is the oldest postgraduate scholarship in the world, Cecil Rhodes died last year, but he set up provisions for it which is funded by his estate (Bill Clinton will receive a Rhodes Scholarship), George R. Parkin (a Canadian) becomes the first secretary of the Rhode’s Trust, and Alfred Milner’s assistant in setting up the methods by which the Rhode’s scholars would be chosen  (The Anglo-American Establishment, Intro)

JP Morgan purchases the White Star Line (that eventually builds the Titanic) from the British, one of the conditions the British government made him agree too was that the WSL ships could be requisitioned as troop carriers in the event of war (and remember that WWI is already in the planning stages)

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 12 

January 12, The General Education Board, founded by John D. Rockefeller is incorporated by an Act of Congress according to Wikipedia, its main object is for the “promotion of education within the United States of America, without distinction of race, sex, or creed” (it will close in 1964)

May 15, Prescott Bush turns 8 years old (he becomes the father of Pres. George H. W. Bush and grandfather to Pres. George W. Bush), his father, Samuel Prescott Bush is working for John D. Rockefeller’s steel castings company that makes parts for trains

J. Paul Getty’s dad, George Franklin Getty, founds the Minnehoma Oil Company in Oklahoma, and moves his family there (though in a few years they will move to Los Angeles, California

The January 1903 edition of Current History and Modern Culture, A Monthly Illustrated Chronicle of the World’s Progress is printed (I buy it from an antique shop in 2021)

May 3, Bing Crosby is born in Tacoma, Washington (d. 1977)

May 29, Bob Hope is born in Eltham, London (d. 2003)

Solomon Belernof’s Lithuanian family settles in Langdale Street, London, joining some 42,000 East European Jews who had settled in Stepney over the previous 30 years, most had fled pogroms (LTA 375)

Motorized taxis appear in London (LL 28)

Edward Huntington buys the San Marino ranch that will eventually become the Huntington Library and Gardens

August 22, Lord Salisbury (former prime minister of England and part of the “Cecil Bloc” (Cecil Rhode’s secret society) dies at Hatfield House (it looks like he was related to Cecil, his father was named James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury)

The first fully functioning U-boat is completed in Krupp’s dockyard in Kiel Germany on the eve of World War I (History of the World, Map by Map, Pg. 268)

Niels Bohr (Danish physicist) enrolls as an undergraduate at the Copenhagen University, he studies physics, mathematics and astronomy

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 5 years old and growing up in Ireland

December 5, Walt Disney turns 2

Hollywood becomes a municipality  

A picture is taken of John Muir and President Theodore Roosevelt in Yosemite (saw it on a plaque in Muir Woods)



Theodore Roosevelt is president of the USA – King Edward VII is on the English throne –Arthur Balfour (Earl of Balfour) is prime minister of England

Alfred Milner is the 1st Governor of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony in Africa , and in charge of Cecil Rhode’s vast diamond estate in Africa

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 13 

January 18, Cary Grant (Archibald Alec Leach) is born in Bristol, England – Motorized buses appear in London (LL 28)

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 6 

December 5, Walt Disney turns 3



Theodore Roosevelt is president – King Edward VII is on the English throne –Arthur Balfour is prime minister of England until December 5 when Henry Campbell-Bannerman becomes Prime Minister (until 1908)

Alfred Milner is the 1st Governor of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony in Africa until April 1, and in charge of Cecil Rhode’s vast diamond estate in Africa

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 14

A photo is taken of C.S. Lewis’s family (mother, father, brother, aunt, grandmother, cousins and maids) in front of Little Lea, their house in Ireland (Lewis is either 6 or 7yrs old) (CSL 15), Albert Lewis sends his 9 year old son, Warren, off to boarding school in England called Wynard School in Watford, north of London in May, and for two years C.S. Lewis “remained at home, and was taught by his mother and a governess, Annie Harper. But perhaps the best teachers were the burgeoning stacks of book, none of which were forbidden to him” (CSL 17)

The railroad arrives in Garden Grove and helps the town prosper with crops of oranges, walnuts, chili peppers and later strawberries

Witness Lee (Chinese Christian preacher) is born in Yantai, Shandong, China into a Southern Baptist family

Mary Griffith (Hillary Clinton’s great grandmother on her dad’s side) dies

Charles Booth becomes a member of the royal commission on the Poor Law in England

September 19, Dr. Barnardo dies in London, by the time of his death, he had “saved over 60,000 destitute children from appalling squalor, vice and degradation, and conditions for homeless children had been transformed” (LL 17)

A photo is taken of Ludgate Circus looking south, showing the railway bridge and signal gantries of the London, Chatham and Dover railway, erected in 1865 in the face of public protest, in the photo, the arms of Greece, Prussia, Russia and Siam are over the top of a clockmakers shop with Queen Victoria’s royal arms over the center (LL 96)

French Composer, Claude Debussy, publishes “Clair de Lune” the third segment in Suite bergamasque, a four movement composition for piano

The young Russian Prince, Alexi, who is at this time only 3 years old, falls and hits his knee, and because he has hemophilia, he begins to bleed out, his mother, the Tzarina Alexandra (Queen Victoria’s granddaughter), desperate for a cure, seeks out a mystic to help her son and she meets Grigori Rasputin who then apparently heals the boy by speaking comfortingly to him, the family feels greatly indebted to Rasputin after this event

Albert Einstein, while working at the Swiss patent office in Zurich, develops his groundbreaking theory “E=mc squared” demonstrating that “matter and energy are so fundamentally related that they are one and the same, Essentially, his work showed that matter and energy are completely interchangeable. This contradicted Newton and Descartes, and ushered in a new understanding of how the universe functions.” (BHBY 8) This idea developed quantum mechanics, a mathematical application of the quantum theory put forth by German physicist, Max Planck, back in 1900  (history.com) (Albert Einstein continues working at the patent office in Switzerland until 1909 when he begins teaching at the University of Zurich)

Edison Gold Moulded Records are being produced, the tube it comes in has the words “Echo all over the world” on it along with a picture of a young looking Edison, they are for recording your voice on a phonograph and are made by the “National Phonograph Company” and the Edison Laboratory in Orange, New Jersey, lots of patents are stated on the tube as well

William and Elizabeth Kent purchase 611 acres of “Sequoia Canyon” (later Muir Woods) for $45,000

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 7 

December 5, Walt Disney turns 4

December 24, Howard Hughes is born in Humble, Texas (he goes on to be a USA business magnate, record-setting pilot, engineer, film director—he will eventually own RKO Pictures in 1948—investor and philanthropist, as a film Tycoon he will gain fame in the 1920’s, d. 1976)



Theodore Roosevelt is president – King Edward VII is on the English throne

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 15

March 6, Lou Costello is born in Paterson, New Jersey

March 21, John D. Rockefeller III is born in New York City (d. 1978 in head on collision) he is born to John D. Rockefeller Jr. (son of original Rockefeller) and Abigail Greene Aldrich (b. 1874 / d. 1948), he is the brother of Nelson Rockefeller (b. 1908) who goes on to be governor of New York and Vice President of the U.S. in the 1970s

Meanwhile, in Russia, the four Romanov daughters all have brownie box cameras and are constantly taking pictures of each other, they’re photographs show their casual home life and the sisters just being sisters, “pasting” photos in their albums were one of their favorite pastimes

In Portsmouth, England, the HMS Dreadnought, the first “all-big-gun” battleship is launched, fueling the naval race on the eve of WWI (HWMM 268)

“The Milner Group” (formerly the Rhodes Secret Society) creates the Union of South Africa between 1906-1910 (AAE Intro)

Heiress Almira Hershey, who is presently living in a mansion on Bunker Hill in Downtown Los Angeles, takes a buggy ride to see the Hollywood Hotel that she had seen advertised in the Los Angeles Times, when she arrives, she is so taken with the hotel, she decides to buy it, hiring Margaret J. Anderson who had worked with her on the Darby and Fremont hotels which Hershey owns; Together, they expand the Hollywood Hotel from 16 rooms to 250 (but the two women had a falling out later and Margaret leaves for the Beverly Hills Hotel in 1912) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollywood_Hotel)

Watch YouTube Video “1906—Tram Ride Through Vienna, Austria”

Wednesday, April 18, the San Francisco Earthquake takes place with an estimated 7.9 magnitude, high-intensity shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast of California to Salinas, an agricultural region to the south of the city, more than 3,000 people died and it is to this day (in 2021) still the deadliest of all United States disasters

Congress passes the American Antiquities Act, allowing the President to preserve areas of historic and scientific interest by presidential proclamation

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 8, he is at home in Little Lea without his brother  now, and reading all the books in the house

December 5, Walt Disney turns 5



Theodore Roosevelt is president – King Edward VII is on the English throne –Gustav V becomes king of Sweden (r. 1907-1950), after his father, Oscar II (r. 1872-1907) dies at Stockholm Palace  

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 16

August 20, The Lewis family (without their father, Albert Lewis) spends the holidays in France, during which Flora Lewis took her two sons to the Pension le Petit Vallon, a family hotel in the small town of Berneval-le-Grand in Normandy, not far from Dieppe, where they would remain until September 18, Lewis would later be stationed only miles from here during WWI

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 9 

JP Morgan commissions three ships to be built for the White Star Line (which he purchased in 1903), they are going to be called the Olympic Class, and they are to be built as three sister ships; in order of being built they will be called: The Olympic, the Titanic, and the Britannica

Construction begins on the Rosyth Naval Dockyard in Rosyth, Scotland, there is a naval race going on right now on the eve of World War I; additionally, Britain reorganizes its army to create an Expeditionary Force of 160,000 troops and a volunteer part-time force of 300,000 Territorials (History of the World Map by Map)

December 5, Walt Disney turns 6



Theodore Roosevelt is president – King Edward VII is on the English throne - Katsura Tarō becomes prime minister of Japan

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 17

Early in the year, Flora Lewis becomes seriously ill, and Albert Lewis asks his father, Richard, to move out so that there could be room for the nurses, this was too much for Richard and he suffered a stroke in late March and died, Warnie is summoned home from school, there is a photograph of them with their bicycles in August, Flora died at home on August 23, two weeks later, Albert Lewis sends Lewis with Warnie to Wynard School in England

May 20, Jimmy Stewart is born in Indiana, Pennsylvania

Germany launches its first “all-big-gun” dreadnought battleship, SMS Nassau in Wilhelmshaven on the eve of World War I (HWMM 268)

July 8, Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (grandson to John D. Rockefeller, son of John D. Rockefeller Jr.) is born, John D. Rockefeller Jr. is now 34 years old (Nelson Rockefeller later becomes the 41st Vice President of the US under President Gerald Ford in 1974)  

July 26, the FBI is created in the USA

The Milner Group (formerly the Rhodes Secret Society) establishes the South African periodical The State

The Milner Group publicizes and promotes the name “British Commonwealth of Nations” (The Anglo-American Establishment Intro)

Ford makes the first universal car—the Model T (only in black, it was meant to last for a lifetime, once you bought one, you’d never need to buy a new one

The book Anne of Green Gables by Canadian author L.M. Montgomery is published

“In early 1908, after the death of his mother, 18-year-old Adolf Hitler left his provincial hometown of Linz and moved to Vienna, the glamorous capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Leaving behind his late father’s ambitions for him to become a civil servant, Hitler saw Vienna as the ideal place to pursue his own youthful dream—to become an artist. But while Hitler’s childhood friend and new roommate, August Kubizek, was immediately accepted to a conservatory of music, Hitler spent his first months in Vienna sleeping late, sketching and reading piles of books. As biographer Volker Ullrich writes in Hitler: Ascent, 1889-1839, what Kubizek didn’t know was that before moving to Vienna, Hitler had already been rejected by the city’s Academy of Fine Arts. Though he passed the initial exam in 1907, his drawing skills were ‘unsatisfactory’ the admissions committee decided…in the fall of 1908, he again applied to the Academy of Fine Arts, and again they rejected him. Over much of the next year, he would move from one cheap rented room to another, even living in a homeless shelter for a time.” (History.com)  

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 10 

December 5, Walt Disney turns 7

President Theodore Roosevelt accepts the donation of “Sequoia Canyon” from the Kents (see 1905) and proclaims Muir Woods a National Monument



KINGS & RULERS: William Howard Taft becomes the 27th president of the United States – Edward VII is king of England – Nicholas II is the tsar of Russia – Katsura Tarō is prime minister of Japan

January 3, J.R.R. Tolkien turns 18

May 10, a photo is taken at Shepherd’s Place Archway and Tenter Street, Spitafields of those that lived in the tightly packed houses there (Lost London 37)

Tsar Nicholas II commits around 1 million rubles to construct a military air force in St. Petersburg between 1909-1910 on the eve of World War I (History of the World Map by Map 268)

In the summer, C.S. Lewis’ brother Warnie leaves Wynard School, leaving Lewis alone there

“In 1909, Hitler finally began earning money by making small oil and watercolor paintings, mostly images of buildings and other landmarks in Vienna that he copied from postcards. By selling these painting to tourists and frame-sellers, he made enough to move out of the homeless shelter and into a men’s home, where he painted by day and continued studying his books at night. In Vienna, the frustrated young artist had become interested in politics. Though Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that his anti-semitic views formed during this period, many historians doubt this simplified story. After all, Samuel Morgenstern, a Jewish store owner, was one of the most loyal buyers of Hitler’s paintings in Vienna. But his time in Vienna did shape Hitler’s world view, particularly his admiration of the city’s then-mayor, Karl Lueger, who was known for his anti-semitic rhetoric as much as his oratorical skills.” (history.com)

Albert Einstein quits working at the Swiss patent office when he receives his first full-time academic post at the University of Zurich (he works here until 1913 when he begins teaching at the University of Berlin)

J. Paul Getty graduates from Los Angeles’ Polytechnic High School

Sir Francis Galton (Eugenics, Social Darwinism, scientific racism and Darwin’s half cousin) is knighted (b. 1822 / d. 1911)

November 29, C.S. Lewis turns 11 years old

December 3, Walt Disney turns 8

Punch Vol. 137 is published in London at the office of 10 Bouverie Street compiling all the Punch weekly magazines of humor and satire between July-December of 1909 into one book (in personal library); Punch was established in London back in 1841, and it is also known by the title London Charivaria

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