1860-1869 A.D. - The American Civil War, Tourism in the Middle East & The World's First Traffic Light

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1860

James Buchanan is president – Victoria is Queen of England (41 yrs. Old) –

Alexander II is the tsar of Russia and king of Poland – Frederick William IV is king

of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

– On February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 52 years old

Great Expectations by Charles Dickens is published

– Construction on the Houses of Parliament is completed

Hannah Cullwick is writing her daily chore diary, she is a general servant for an upholsterer in Kilburn, London, she writes on July 14, 1860: “Opened the shutters & lighted the kitchen fire. Shook my sooty things in the  dusthole & emptied the soot there. Swept & dusted the rooms & the hall. Laid the hearth & got breakfast up. Clean’d 2 pairs of boots. Made the beds & emptied the slops. Clean’d the kitchen up; unpack’d a hamper. Took two chickens to Mrs. Brewer’s & brought the message back…” – London became the “city of clock-time, and of speed for its own sake. It became the home of engines and steam-driven industry; it became the city where electromagnetic forces were discovered and publicized. It also became the center of mass production, with the impersonal forces of demand and supply, profit and loss, intervening between vendor and customer. In the same period business and government were supervised by a vast army of clerks and bookkeepers who customarily wore uniform dark costumes.” (LTB 564)

– The Prince of Wales and future King Edward the VII tours North America, right before the Civil War begins, with great success (see photo of him at Niagara Falls) – Harrods department store is still small but in the present day location

– During the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces take control of the Forbidden City in Bejing, China and occupy it until the end of the war

1861 – James Buchanan is president until March 4 when Abraham Lincoln becomes

the 16th president of United States/Andrew Johnson is vice president – Queen Victoria (42 years old) is queen of England/Henry John Temple is prime minister –

Alexander II is on the Russian throne, and is king of Poland – Frederick William IV is on the Prussian (German Confederation) throne until January 2 when Wilhelm I ascends the throneKing Victor Emmanuel II becomes the first official King of Italy (that includes the entire Italian peninsula since the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain

– On February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 53 years old

– Tsar Alexander II of Russian emancipates Russia’s serfs—unfree peasants who could only be sold with the land they were “attached” to—Alexander effectively abolished serfdom in Russia, with his Edict of Emancipation, by this edict more than 23 million people receive their liberty (Peter I ended slavery in Russian in 1723) 

American Civil War begins

– On June 5, Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert, has his last public appearance at the opening of the Royal Horticultural Gardens on June 5, in August he and Victoria visit the Prince of Wales at Curragh Camp, Ireland where the Prince of Wales was attending army maneuvers, at Curragh, the Prince of Wales was introduced to Nellie Clifden, and Irish actress, in November, Albert’s younger cousins, brothers King Pedro V of Portugal (aged 24), Prince Ferdinand, and Prince Joao all die of typhoid fever and cholera, also in November the Trent Affair with America happens as well as rumors of their son, the Prince of Wales being involved with the Irish actress

– On December 14, Prince Albert dies of Typhoid Fever at Windsor Castle, Queen Victoria is 42 years old

Carl Rothschild’s bank in Naples is closed and the bank’s assets are transferred back to the Rothschild bank in Frankfurt, Germany, (I wonder if this had to do with Italy becoming its own kingdom?) The Rothschild banks continue to function in France, Austria and England

– Wilhelm I or William I becomes King of Prussia (and eventually the first German Emperor when the German Empire is formed ten years later in 1871) – Claude Monet, in France, is drafted into the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry (Chasseurs d’Afrique) in Algeria for a seven-year period of military service, though his prosperous father could have purchased an exemption from conscription for his son, he declined to do so when Monet refused to give up painting – Solomon Guggenheim is born Pennsylvania (d. 1949, he goes on to become an American businessman and art collector)

– Greece expands its territory by adding the Ionian islands  

1862 – Abraham Lincoln is the president/Andrew Johnson is vice president – Queen

Victoria (43 years old) is queen of England/Henry John Temple is prime minister – King Victor Emmanuel II is on the Italian throne – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain

– On February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 54 years old

– On May 6, Henry David Thoreau dies in Concord, MA

– In the United States, The Pacific Railroad Act charters the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad Companies, tasking them with building a transcontinental railroad that would link the United States from east to west, and over the next seven years, the two companies would race toward each other from Sacramento, California on the one side, and from Omaha, Nebraska on the other, struggling against great risks before they met at the Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869

– Claude Monet comes down with Typhoid fever after about a year serving in the French military in Algiers, at this point his aunt intervened and removed him from the military if he agreed to complete a course at an art school

The U.S. one dollar bill is printed for the first time as a Silver Certificate (see 1963 when it went from being a Silver Certificate to a Federal Reserve Note)

On July 1, The IRS is created in the USA

– A scientific experiment is carried out in the Munich Alps by J.V. Lamont in which he discovers the earth’s telluric currents that run underground, many of these are induced by the earth’s magnetic field which are usually caused by interactions between the solar wind and the magnetosphere, or solar radiation effects on the ionosphere

Florence Augusta Lewis (C.S. Lewis’ mother) is born in Queenstown (now Cobh), County Cork, Ireland, her father, Thomas Hamilton, is a Church of Ireland clergyman (see 1870 next) (CSL 7)

1863 – Abraham Lincoln is president/Andrew Johnson is vice president – Victoria is

queen of England (44 years old)/Henry John Temple is prime minister – Victor

Emmanuel II is king of Italy – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain

On April 29, William Randolph Hearst is born in San Francisco, CA

On November 19, Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address  

On December 18, Archduke Franz Ferdinand (assassinated in 1914, beginning WWI)

– The “cage” crinoline, a petticoat made of steel, is now shaped more like a pyramid (IVH 308)

1864 – Abraham Lincoln is president/Andrew Johnson is vice president – Victoria is

queen of England (45 years old)/Henry John Temple is prime minister – Victor

Emmanuel II is king of Italy – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain

– On February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 55 years old

– Queen Victoria of England is growing in unpopularity by keeping herself secluded and invisible from the people since Prince Albert’s death in 1861, in fact someone pins an advertisement to the gates of Buckingham Palace that reads “These commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant’s declining business” (QVM 21) 

– Nathanial Hawthorne dies in Plymouth, New Hampshire

1865 – Abraham Lincoln is president/Andrew Johnson is vice president – Victoria is

queen of England (46 years old)/Henry John Temple is prime minister – Victor

Emmanuel II is king of Italy – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain

– In January, an amendment to the Constitution to abolish slavery in the United States is proposed by Congress

– On February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 56 years old

– On April 15, Abraham Lincoln is assassinated and Andrew Johnson becomes the 17th president of the United States (his term lasts until 1869 when he is succeeded by Ulysses S. Grant)

– On May 9, the American Civil War ends

– On June 22, Queen Victoria is 46 years old when her grandson, the future English king George V, is born at Marlborough House in London to future English king Edward VI (Victoria’s son)

– In Germany, Johannes Brahms is composing A German Requiem (finishes in 1868)

– “One evening in 1865 there was a buzzing in Smiljan, Croatia, a yearly plague of June beetles. The buzz kept the nine-year-old Nikola Tesla awake…” in the morning he went on to try and power a small motor he’d built, the motor turned and his heart raced, but a boy entered his shed and ate some of the bugs and Nikola wretched into the bushes—he never tried using bugs again, “but the idea of harnessing natural energy and a penchant for crafting nearly magical devices would always stay with the young inventor.” (MI Into.)

– Alice Eastwood (see 1859) turns 6 years old and promises her dying Irish mother that she will look after her younger siblings, after her mother’s death, her father left all the kids with relatives in Ontario Canada, her uncle was an experimental horticulturist and shared his passion with young Alice, teaching her plant names and gifting her books about plants, growing up her two favorite wildflowers were partridge berry and wild raspberry (https://untoldstories.net/1879/01/plant-collector-extraordinaire-alice-eastwood/)

– On December 18, the amendment to abolish slavery in the United States is ratified

1866 – Charles Booth (English philanthropist) begins a shipping service between

Europe and Brazil – Beatrix Potter is born on July 28 West Brompton, London (d.

1943)

At Highclere Castle, the 4th earl drafts the British North America Act of 1867 alongside the first Prime Minister of Canada, John A. Macdonald (in office 1878-1891), next year, the 4th Earl will present this Act to Parliament, this leads to the formation of Canada next year

1867 – PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & ROYALTY: Das Kapital, by Karl

Marx is written in London

– Charles Warren begins his excavations in Jerusalem under the Palestine Exploration Fund

– The Austro-Hungarian Empire or Dual Monarchy is formed after the signing of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it combines the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, as well as a third component, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (an autonomous region under the Hungarian Crown), the Austro-Hungarian Empire becomes one of the great powers in Central Europe until its defeat in 1918 after WWI, it was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy—Franz Joseph I is the first (but there were only two, the empire was short lived) Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (before this he had already been king of Hungary and Emperor of Austria, so I guess it only made sense)

– Nikola Tesla (born in Croatia in 1856) is 11 years old and now a citizen of the Austro-Hungarian Empire)

– Dr. Barnardo founds his first home for poor and deprived children in London, and by the time of his death, 60,000 children had been taken in

– Laura Ingles Wilder is born in Mansfield Missouri (Her Little House on the Prairie books are published between 1932 and 1943)

– The “cage” crinoline, a petticoat made of steel, is now replaced by the “crinolette” which created the train effect, with an open front that permitted the dress to fall straight to the ground (IVH 308)

– British born Nathan Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild marries his double first cousin (they shared both sets of grandparents) from the Rothschild Banking Company in GERMANY, Emma Louise von Rothschild  

– July 1, John Macdonald becomes the first prime minister of Canada

– Claude Monet and Camille have their first child named Jean

– Alice Eastwood (see 1859) and her sister move into a convent in Oshawa, Ontario, where an elderly French priest-gardener, Father Pugh, nurtured her early botanical interest, here she also learned music from a French-Canadian nun, later in life she was able to earn extra money through teaching music to a woman in a nearby village (https://untoldstories.net/1879/01/plant-collector-extraordinaire-alice-eastwood/)

1868 – PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & ROYALTY: Andrew Johnson (D) is

president of the United States – Victoria is queen of England – Ludwig II is king of Bavaria 

– Charles Warren continues excavations in Jerusalem

– Hundreds of American tourists are traveling to the Middle East; “Arriving in Damascus in 1868, [Fredrick] Church discovered that Americans had snatched every available hotel room. ‘The few Englishmen here stand with their hands in their pockets and exclaim ‘most extraordinary—these Americans!’” (Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present 228)

– “The world’s first traffic light with green and red gas-powered signals had been installed in Bridge Street by the Palace of Westminster” (Lost London 28)

– Nathan and Emma Rothschild have their son Lionel Walter Rothschild who becomes a prominent member of the Zionist movement and will be present at the Balfour Declaration which will be a British pledged for a Jewish national home in Palestine in 1917

– Albert Bierstadt, a German born, though American raised, painter, completes his large painting titled Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, though it wasn’t painted in California, but in Rome and exhibited in Berlin, London and Paris, presumably as a means of establishing an international reputation to impress American collectors with the prestige of Europe

– Thomas Edison is demoted and quits his job at the Western Union Telegraph office in Boston for a prank he played on his bosses

1869 – PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & ROYALTY: Andrew Johnson (D) is

president of the United States until March 4, when Ulysses S Grant (R) becomes the 18th president of the United States – Queen Victoria is on the English Throne – Ludwig II is king of Bavaria

– March 4, Ulysses S. Grant becomes the 18th president of the United States (has two terms, which ends in 1877), he goes on to sign The District of Colombia Organic Act of 1871, thereby making the United States government a private company that has nothing to do with the United States as a nation

– June 6, John Muir goes with a shepherd into the Sierras and writes his journal (later becoming a book called My First Summer in the Sierra), the trip lasts until September 8

– October 2, Gandhi is born in Porbandar, India (Indian Lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, and political ethicist, who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India’s independence from British Rule)

– Charles Warren continues excavations in Jerusalem

The Yosemite Book, by Josiah Whitney, is published and is basically a travel guide to Yosemite and the surrounding area

– Rasputin is born to a peasant family in Siberia

– Construction begins on Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria, King Ludwig II commissioned it for himself as a retreat (but it was never finished as he died in 1886, and it opened to the public shortly after his death, 6,000 people per day visit the castle during the summer now, this is also the castle that inspired Sleeping Beauty’s castle in Disneyland)

– December 8, Pope Pius IX opens the First Vatican Council (the last Catholic Council was the Council of Trent 1545-1563) 

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