1850-1859 A.D. - Charlotte Brontë

Intro

Body

Music

Feature Photo

 

1850

Vice President Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th president of the United States, succeeding Zachary Taylor who dies suddenly on July 9/No Vice president until 1853 – Victoria is queen of England – Nicholas I is tsar of Russia – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 42

End of the peak of the Romantic era

The book David Copperfield by Charles Dickens is published

September 9, California becomes the 31st state

Henry Mayhew interviews London inhabitants for his book, London Labour and the London Poor which publishes in 1851 (the watercress girl, street slang, the bird seller, the sewer hunter) (London the Autobiography, Pg. 275)

February 27, Henry Edwards Huntington (Huntington Library and Gardens) is born, in Oneonta, New York, he becomes a railroad and real estate businessman

July 4, the cornerstone is laid for the Washington Monument, it is attended by the 12th president of the United States, Zachary Taylor, who dies on July 9th, possibly due to the heat and bad food from the celebration, Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th president of the United States

The book The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is published, it’s set in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the years between 1642 and 1649

The 1850s marked a period of transition in photography as photos went from being printed on a copper plate to paper (National Art Gallery, nga.gov.com)

The famous portrait of Charlotte Brontë is drawn by George Richmond (feature photo)

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 16 years old and is still working as a telegraph messenger in Pittsburg, his education is given a boost when Colonel James Anderson opens his personal library of 400 volumes to working boys each Saturday night, Andrew is a consistent borrower at the library 

From 1850, King William Fredrick IV of Prussia puts his long lasting dream of making Hohenzollern Castle habitable again into a reality and creates one of Germany’s most imposing castle complexes in a neo-Gothic style, with its many towers and fortifications, it is an acclaimed masterpiece of military architecture in the 19th century, it is located on a mountain in Swabia (see 1952) https://www.burg-hohenzollern.com/castle-history.html  

 

1851

Milliard Fillmore is president/No vice president – Victoria is queen of England/Lord John Russell is prime minister – Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 43

June 7, Charlotte Bronte visits the Great Exhibition in London (London the Autobiography)

October 19, Marie Antionette's daughter, Marie-Thérèse dies, aged 72, at Frohsdorf Palace, Lanzenkirchen, Austrian Empire (b.1778) 

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 17 years old and is still working as a telegraph messenger in Pittsburg (Photo: Andrew Carnegie and his brother Thomas in 1851, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Queen Victoria holds a fancy-dress ball at Buckingham Palace (London the Autobiography)

The book London Labour and the London Poor by Henry Mayhew is published

Peter Hardeman Burnett resigns from the office of California governor

The town of Geyserville is founded in California

 

1852

Milliard Fillmore is president/No vice president – Victoria is queen of England/Lord John Russell is prime minister until February 21 when Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby replaces him, until December 19 when George Hamilton-Gordon replaces him – Nicholas I is the tsar of Russia – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 44

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 18 years old and is still working as a telegraph messenger in Pittsburg

Charles Taze Russell (started the Bible Student movement—later known as Jehovah’s Witnesses) is born in Allegheny   

 

1853

Milliard Fillmore is president until March 4 when Franklin Pierce becomes the 14th president of the United States/William R. King becomes vice president – Victoria is queen of England/George Hamilton-Gordon is prime minister – Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 45 years old

Sequoia Mansion is built in Placerville, California, by Colonel Frederick Bee, he built the first telegraph to reach from Placerville all the way over the sierras (the Mansion is now a wine tasting room and wedding venue)

Donna Maria II, queen of Portugal, dies and her husband, Dom Ferdinand loses his title of king, but serves as Regent for his son, King Pedro V, who ascends the throne in 1855 (King Pedro V is cousins with Queen Victoria AND Prince Albert)

July 5, Cecil John Rhodes is born in Bishop’s Stortford, Hertfordshire, England, he becomes a British mining magnate and politician in southern Africa, and will also serve as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890-1896, He will strongly believe in British Imperialism; Rhodes and his British South Africa Company will found the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia) (d. 1902)  

The Crimean War begins in October, in which Russia lost to an alliance made up of France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom and Sardinia, the immediate cause of the war involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, then part of the Ottoman Empire

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 19 years old, he changes jobs from working as a telegraph messenger in Pittsburg, to working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as a secretary/telegraph operator

 

1854

Franklin Pierce is president/William R. King is vice president – Victoria is queen of England/George Hamilton-Gordon is prime minister – Nicholas I the tsar of Russia – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 46 years old

July 5, Cecil Rhodes turns 1 year old

The book Walden by Henry David Thoreau is published (Walden Pond is a lake in Concord Massachusetts)

The first recorded ascent of Mount Shasta occurs by Elias Pearce (Wikipedia)

Robert Schumann attempts suicide and is admitted at his own request to a mental asylum in Bonn, Germany

Charlotte Brontë marries Arthur Bell Nicholls after she accepts his proposal in January, her father said he’d give her away, but at the last minute he couldn’t do it, so she had to make her way to the church without him

Crimean War continues

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 20 years old and is working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as a secretary/telegraph operator

Thomas Edison’s family moves to Port Huron, Michigan from Milan, Ohio

 

1855

Franklin Pierce is president – Queen Victoria is on the English throne –Nicholas I is on the Russian throne until March 2, and Alexander II ascends the throne, he is also king of Poland – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – On March 2, Nicholas I dies, and his son, Alexander II ascends the Russian throne (he is assassinated in 1881) – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 47

March 10, Carl Rothschild dies, aged 66, dies and his sons take over the Naples and Frankfurt banks (since their uncle Amschel died childless)

March 31, Charlotte Bronte dies at the Brontë Parsonage

July 5, Cecil Rhodes turns 2 years old

The California Gold Rush ends

John Muir, Josiah Whitney, Clarence King and John Wesley Powell summit (or nearly so) Mount Shasta, later in 1877, Muir wrote that he survived a blizzard on Mount Shasta by lying in the hot sulfur springs near the summit (Wikipedia) 

King Pedro V comes of age and takes the throne in Portugal

Crimean War continues

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 21 years old and is working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as a secretary/telegraph operator

 

1856

Franklin Pierce is president – Victoria is on the English throne – Alexander II is on the Russian throne, and is king of Poland – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 48 years old

In February, Crimean War ends

May 6, Sigmund Freud is born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg in the Austrian Empire (now the Czech Republic) (dies 1939)

April 5, Booker T. Washington is born in Hale’s Ford Virginia, he becomes an American educator, orator, and adviser to several presidents of the United States

July 5, Cecil Rhodes turns 3 years old

July 10, Nikola Tesla is born in Smiljan, Croatia, in the Austrian Empire (he lives until 1943!!)

The National Portrait Gallery opens its doors and is the only portrait gallery in the world at the time

The first women summit Mount Shasta, they are Harriet Eddy, Mary Campbell McCloud, and their party

German composer Robert Schumann dies of pneumonia in a mental asylum in Endenich, Bonn, Germany at age 46

The “cage” crinoline, a petticoat of steel was introduced, it starts off as a “beehive shape” but changes by 1867 (see that year) (IVH 308)

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 22 years old and is working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as a secretary/telegraph operator

December 18, J.J. Thomson, or in full Sir Joseph John Thomson, is born at Cheetham Hill, near Manchester, England (he will go on to discover the electron in 1897, d. 1940)

December 28, Woodrow Wilson, who later becomes the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921, is born in Staunton Virginia (d. 1924)

 

1857

Franklin Pierce is president until March 4 when James Buchanan becomes the 15th president of the United States – Victoria is Queen of England (38 yrs. old) – Alexander II is the tsar of Russia, and king of Poland – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 49

The British Museum’s Reading Room opens

The Indian rebellion takes place, it was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India from 1857-1858 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown, it began on May 10 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys (originally the designation given to a professional infantryman in the armies of the Mughal Empire) of the Company’s army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi (the area is now Old Delhi), which then erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, the rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region, and was contained only with the rebels’ defeat in Gwalior on June 20 1858, many Indians rose against the British, however, many also fought for the British, and the majority remained seemingly compliant to British Rule

February 22, Heinrich Hertz is born in Hamburg, then a sovereign state of the German Federation (German physicist who first conclusively proves the existence of the electromagnetic waves predicted by James Clark Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism, the unit of frequency, cycles per second, was named the “hertz” in his honor)

The Atlantic magazine is founded in Boston (Right now in 2022 the publication is owned by Steve Jobs’ widow, who--as a side note--is friends with Ghislaine Maxwell)

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 23 years old and is working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as a secretary/telegraph operator

 

1858

James Buchanan is president – Victoria is queen of England (39 yrs. Old) –Alexander II is the tsar of Russia, and king of Poland – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 50

Company Rule (British East India Company rule) in India ends and the British Crown Rule begins in India (see Indian Rebellion of 1857)

April 23, Max Karl Planck is born in Kiel, Duchy of Holstein (just below Denmark, it is part of the German Empire), Max becomes a theoretical physicist and discovers energy quanta, which makes him win a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918, (d. 1947)

November 1, Queen Victoria issues a proclamation to Indians which, while lacking the authority of a constitutional provision, promised rights similar to those of other British subjects

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 24 years old and is working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as a secretary/telegraph operator when Scott asks if he can handle being superintendent to of the Western Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, he takes the job next year

Somewhere around this time Nathaniel/Nathan Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild (great, great grandson of the original Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Germany) attends Trinity College in Cambridge where he becomes good friends with the Prince of Wales, future king Edward VII (the one that got involved with the Irish actress and the scandal added to Prince Albert’s decline in health, I don’t know that Victoria ever forgave him for that) Nathan is 18 years old in this year (becomes king in 1901, d. 1915)

Emily Dickinson (now 28 years old) writes her poem, “It’s all I have to bring to-day” : “It’s all I have to bring to-day, This, and my heart beside, This, and my heart, and all the fields, And all the meadows wide, Be sure you count, should I forget—Some one the sum could tell—This, and my heart, and all the bees Which in the clover dwell.”

 

1859

James Buchanan is president – Victoria is queen of England (40 yrs. Old) –Alexander II is on the Russian throne, and is king of Poland – Frederick William IV is king of Prussia (German Confederation) – Franz Joseph I is Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia – Isabella II is queen of Spain – Pius IX is pope

January 19, Alice Eastwood is born, in Toronto Canada, she later becomes an extraordinary botanist (see the year 1906 when she saves all her specimens from fire after the San Francisco earthquake, see also years 1865, 1867, 1873)

February 12, Abraham Lincoln turns 51

May 22, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author of the Sherlock Holmes books is born in Edinburgh, Scotland

May 31, Big Ben is opened

Gas lighting is installed in the newly built Houses of Parliament, The people of London start to trust gas lighting and begin installing it their homes

November 24, On the Origin of Species, by Charles Darwin is published, “Since the mid-1950’s biochemistry has painstakingly elucidated the workings of life at the molecular level. Darwin was ignorant of the reason for variation within a species (one of his requirements of his theory), but biochemistry has identified the molecular basis for it. Nineteenth century science could not even guess at the mechanism of vision, immunity, or movement, but modern biochemistry has identified the molecules that allow those and other functions.” (preface to Darwin’s Black Box)

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 25 years old and is working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and becomes the superintendent to of the Western Division of the company on December 1, the railroads are the first big businesses in the USA, and Scott helps Carnegie with his first investments

December 4, The Illustrated News of the World features and engraving of the Big Ben Bell (Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

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