1830-1839 A.D. - Queen Victoria, Karl Marx & The Treaty of London

Intro

Body

Music

Photo

 

1830

Andrew Jackson is president – King George IV is king (until June 26) - Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 18

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 21

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 13

May 5, Karl Marx turns 12

May 24, Victoria (not yet queen) turns 11

May 28, President Andrew Jackson signs into law, the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to negotiate with southern Native American tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for white settlement of their ancestral lands, though it was signed by Andrew Jackson, it was strongly enforced seven years later by Martin Van Buren, a founder of the Democratic Party who also served as governor of New York and would become the next president in 1837, this removal led to the Trail of Tears which took place between 1830 and 1850, forcibly displacing approximately 60,000 Native Americans along with thousands of their black slaves (the Native Americans enslaved black people from the colonial period to the Civil War), slavery was not a new concept to the Native Americans, who, during inter-Native American conflicts would often keep prisoners of war as slaves, intra-indigenous slavery also occurred in the Pacific Northwest and in Alaska where it persisted until the late 19thcentury

June 26, King George IV dies at Windsor Castle, Berkshire, his last words, delivered to his doctor, Sir Wathen Waller in a paroxysm of pain, are “My dear boy! This is death!”, there was little sadness at his passing, The Times declared that there had never been ‘An individual less regretted by his fellow creatures than this deceased king’, he is succeeded by his brother William IV, who was woken at 6 a.m. to be told he was king because his older brother had died in the small hours, William reportedly shook the messengers by the hand and retired back to bed with the joke that it had long been his ambition to sleep with a queen, later that morning he rode from his home, Bushy House, Teddington, to Windsor, cheerfully receiving the acclamations of the people he passed and exhibiting no signs of grief at his brother’s death” (RB 210)

The term “Hinduism” is coined by those Indians who oppose the British Colonization of India and wanted to distinguish themselves from other religious groups, it wasn’t used as a religious term yet (Wikipedia)

August 21, to celebrate his birthday, King William IV threw an open air banquet at Windsor for 3,000 impoverished locals and the king sat with them to eat from a menu of veal, ham, beef and plum pudding, he also opened Windsor’s East Terrace and various parts of the Great Park to the public, he was 62 years old

The November Uprising, or Polish-Russian War 1830-31, or the Cadet Revolution becomes an armed revolution in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the occupying Russian Empire (Poland had been divided up three ways between Prussia, Russia and Austria in 1772, 1793 and 1795)

December 10, Emily Dickinson, the American poet, is born into a prominent family with strong ties to its community in Amherst, Massachusetts (d. 1886)

The composer, Chopin, leaves Warsaw where he was born and raised (just outside of the city) less than a month before the uprising

Greece is the first Balkan country to gain independence from the Ottoman Empire, the war for independence, from 1821, continued for nearly 10 years before the Ottomans finally accepted Greece’s independence

 

1831

Andrew Jackson is president – King William IV is on the English throne –Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 19

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 22

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 14 and goes to school at Roe Head

May 5, Karl Marx turns 13

May 24, Victoria (not yet queen) turns 12

In the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, there is a return to the politics of the throne and the alter in Europe, however, in these years following the restoration, the finances of the Holy See have declined and they need money, so after Cardinal Bartolomeo is made Pope Gregory XVI in this year, he reaches out to the Rothschilds for a loan, they thrashed out an agreement that was signed on November 30 (now see 1832) (Wikipedia)

Fredrick William III, king of Prussia, decorates Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel with the Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class for his service to the state (Wikipedia)

November 14, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel dies (b. 1770) from cholera in Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia

December 10, Emily Dickinson turns 1 

A portrait of Henrietta Sontag, the German soprano, in her Donna Anna costume from Mozart's opera Don Giovanni is painted by Paul Delaroche (Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

The Lewis Chessmen are found on the Isle of Lewis in the Hebrides (see the year 1150, when they were most likely carved); They are now housed in the British Museum

 

1832

Andrew Jackson is president – King William IV is on the English throne –Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

The Rothschilds loan Pope Gregory XVI 37.4 million pounds (today’s equivalent) and Carl Rothschild-NAPLES, ITALY was given a ribbon and star of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George by the new Roman Catholic Pope

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 20

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 23

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 15 and returns from Roe Head school to teach her sisters Emily and Anne

May 5, Karl Marx turns 14

May 24, Victoria (not yet queen) turns 13

In England, Michael Faraday is working on the electromagnetic field and is making huge contributions to its study, in June the University of Oxford grants him an honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree, he was also elected an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Treaty of Constantinople, a product of the London Conference of 1832, which opened in February with the participation of the “Great Powers” (Britain, France, and Russia) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other, the factors which shaped the treaty included the refusal of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to assume the Greek throne, the treaty needed to establish the new borders for Greece and the Ottoman Empire, the borders of the Greek Kingdom were reiterated in the London Protocol on August 30 and signed by the Great Powers, which ratified the terms of the Treaty of Constantinople or the Constantinople Arrangement in connection with the border between Greece and the Ottoman Empire and marked the end of the Greek War of Independence, creating modern Greece as an independent state free of the Ottoman Empire 

 

1833

Andrew Jackson is president – King William IV is on the English throne –Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 21

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 24

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 16

May 7, Johannes Brahms, the German composer, conductor and pianist is born  in Hamburg

May 5, Karl Marx turns 15

May 24, Victoria (not yet queen) turns 14

Robert Schumann begins to experience bi-polar and possibly mercury poisoning effects as he goes through his first major depression

July 26, The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 becomes an Act of Parliament to prohibit the owning of slaves in the British Empire, with the exception of the territories in the possession of the East India Company, William Wilberforce died three days later on July 29, aged 74 (b. 1759) years old and is buried in Westminster Abbey

Paul Delaroche, a French painter and acknowledged leader of the juste milieu in France, completes his painting titled The Execution of Lady Jane Grey, this painting would have been “quite familiar to a French middle-class public alert to any possible parallels between English history and their own. Choice of subject was, indeed all-important for such paintings, to catch popular attention when first exhibited and later to secure a wide and very profitable diffusion of prints after them. Pictures of this type were produced in every European country and also in the United States of America. Sometimes they had over political overtones, especially in Italy, where subjects alluding to the Risorgimento or struggle for national unification and independence were as popular for painting as for operas.” (The Visual Arts, A History, Pg. 677-678) (Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

The home of neo-classical architect, Sir John Soane, is established as a museum by a Private Act of Parliament while he is still alive, in fact, he worked with Parliament to make it so, as he disliked his son intensely and wanted to disinherit him, he wanted it to be opened to the public when he died (he dies in 1837)

 

1834

Andrew Jackson is president – King William IV is on the English throne –Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 22

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 25

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 17, and her brother, Branwell, paints a portrait of her and her two younger sisters, Emily and Anne

May 5, Karl Marx turns 16

May 24, Victoria (not yet queen) turns 15

Frederic Chopin's Grande valse brillante in E-Flat Major is published, listen to it on Spotify here

Westminster Palace is destroyed by fire, only Westminster Hall remains, which is now within the Houses of Parliament

Donna Maria II becomes Queen of Portugal (she was previously queen from 1826-1828)

Pope Gregory XVI appoints Cardinal Antonio Tosti as the Papal Treasurer (also known as the Apostolic Camera), and he tries to convert the papal debt with six Parisian banks who were rivals to the Rothschilds, but the Rothschilds find out about the plan and, in the end, the pope continues with the Rothschild loan

November 25, Andrew Carnegie (as in Carnegie Hall) is born in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland

 

1835

Andrew Jackson is president – King William IV is on the English throne –Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 23

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 26

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 18 and returns to Roe Head school as a governess

May 5, Karl Marx turns 17

May 24, Victoria (not yet queen) turns 16

Construction begins on Babelsberg Palace in Potsdam, Germany (ends in 1849), for over 50 years it will be the summer residence of Prince William, later German Emperor William I and King of Prussia and his wife, Augusta of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, German Empress and Queen of Prussia   

In October, at the age of 17, Karl Marx attends the University of Bonn in the Prussian Empire (later part of the German Empire), while at the University of Bonn, Marx joins the Poet’s Club, a group of radicals that are monitored by the police, Marx also joins the Trier Tavern Drinking Club where many ideas are discussed and at one point he serves as the club’s co-president

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 1

November 30, Mark Twain is born in Missouri

The Berlin Observatory opens for astronomers, and also opens to the public two nights a week (Neptune is discovered there in 1846)

 

1836

Andrew Jackson is president – King William IV is on the English throne –Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne 

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 24

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 27

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 19

May 5, Karl Marx turns 18

May 24, Victoria (not yet queen) turns 17

The Arc de Triomphe is inaugurated in Paris by the French king, Louise-Philippe, who dedicated it to the armies of the revolution and the empire

The book, The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens is published 

The United States Exploring Expedition is created by Andrew Jackson and authorized by congress to explore the Pacific Ocean and lands surrounding the United States, it begins in 1838

Donna Maria II queen of Portugal marries Dom Ferdinand II, a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry (he becomes King of Portugal after the birth of their first son in 1837), they go on to have eleven children together

Karl Marx, at the age of 18, gets into a duel with a member of the University ofBonn’s Borussian Corps, forcing his father to pull him from that school and send him to the more serious and academic University of Berlin

The Battle of the Alamo takes place between February 23 – March 6, a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 2 

November 30, Mark Twain turns 1 

 

1837

Martin Van Buren becomes the 8th president of the United States on March 4 – Queen Victoria begins her rule in England on June 20 at the age of 18 (shereigns until 1901) - Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 25

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 28

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 20

May 5, Karl Marx turns 19

May 24, Queen Victoria turns 18

The cornerstone of the Houses of Parliament is laid and construction begins 

Sir John Soane dies and his house is opened as a museum in Lincoln’s Inn Fields in Holborn, London  

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 3 years old

November 30, Mark Twain turns 2

 

1838

Martin Van Buren is president – Victoria is on the English throne – Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 26, his book Oliver Twist is published

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 29

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 21, also John Muir is born in a four story stone house in Dunbar, Scotland; He later becomes a Scottish-American; He is the third of eight children born to Daniel Muir and Ann Gilrye

May 5, Karl Marx turns 20

May 24, Queen Victoria turns 19

June 28, Queen Victoria's coronation takes place at Westminster Abbey (Photo: Victoria in her coronation robes, painted by Charles Robert Leslie, Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Edward Robinson, an American biblical scholar, blazes the trail in Jerusalem archaeology with his meticulous topographical excavations of the city

The United States Exploring Expedition begins, which explores and surveys the Pacific Ocean and the lands surrounding the United States

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 4

November 30, Mark Twain turns 3

 

1839

Martin Van Buren is president – Victoria is on the English throne – Nicholas I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 27

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 30

April 19, “Treaty of London 1939” is signed (which will be significant in WWI) guaranteeing Belgian neutrality and commits Austria, Belgium, France, the German Confederation, the Netherlands, Russia, and Britain to military intervention if neutrality is breached (there will also be more of these “Treaties of London” later),  (HWMM 268)

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 22, and John Muir (American naturalist) turns 1

May 5, Karl Marx turns 21

May 24, Queen Victoria turns 20

July 8, John D. Rockefeller is born, in Richford, New York

The second generation of Rothschilds have banks in France, England, Italy, Austria and Germany, they are known as the “Five Arrows” of banking 

Photography is introduced to the world, and when the new medium arrives in the United States, it first establishes itself in major cities in the east and photographers in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston recorded the scenic vistas of tourist destinations such as the White Mountains or Niagara Falls

September 4, The First Opium War is fought between England and China, begins (and lasts until 1842), its cause was the Chinese official seizure of opium stocks at Canton to stop the opium trade, and threatening the death penalty for future offenders, while the British government insisted upon free trade, equal diplomatic recognition among nations, and backed the merchants’ demands

November 25, Andrew Carnegie turns 5

November 30, Mark Twain turns 4

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