1800-1819 A.D. - Jane Austen, Sacagawea & Napoleon

Intro

Body paragraph.

Music

Photo

 

1800

John Adams is president – King George III is on the throne of England/ William Pitt is the English Prime Minister – Paul I is on the Russian throne – Charles IV is on the Spanish throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis II is on the throne of the Holy Roman Empire and Germany

April 13, Thomas Jefferson turns ___, and a portrait is painted of him by Rembrandt Peale (Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

May 15, James Hadfield fires a shot at King George III in Drury Lane

The Romantic Era (or Romanticism), an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe, begins its peak

London is the first major European city with one million inhabitants (by 1911 it had seven million) (Lost London, Pg. 10)

London is a center of medical advances: “By 1800, London was ‘the best spot in Great Britain, and probably the whole world where medicine may be taught as well as cultivated to most advantage,’ according to the well-known Bristol-based physician Thomas Beddoes.” (LMWKE 33)

Sacagawea is captured by an enemy tribe, the Hidatsa tribe, at 12 years old, who then sell her to a French-Canadian trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau who made her one of his wives, she then lives with him among the Hidatsa in the upper Missouri River area (present-day North Dakota)

Maria Edgeworth’s Castle Rackrent is published, “Having moved with her father to Ireland in 1782, Maria Edgeworth was better known for her four Irish novels, in particular Castle Rackrent” (JAE Intro xx)

In November, Thomas Young reads his lengthy and highly detailed paper “On the mechanism of the eye,” to the Royal Society (it is published in 1801)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 25

 

1801

Thomas Jefferson becomes the 3rd president of the United States on March 4 (term is from 1801 – 1809) and Aaron Burr becomes his vice president – King George III is on the throne of England/William Pitt steps down as the English Prime Minister on March 14 and Henry Addington becomes Prime Minister (until 1804) – Alexander I ascends to the Russian throne in March – Charles IV is on the Spanish throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis II is on the throne of the Holy Roman Empire and Germany

The Freemasons join the Illuminati 

“By the time of the 1801 census, England had a population of 8 million living in the country of some 32 million acres, and about 80 to 90 percent of this land was owned by the aristocracy and landed gentry.” (JAE 80)

The Act of Union links Britain and Ireland in a United Kingdom

In England, there is a brief interlude of peace between the end of the Revolutionary Wars with France, and the start of the Napoleonic wars in 1803 (JAE Intro xvii)

German Romantic composer, Ludwig Beethoven, completes his Moonlight Sonata

Thomas Young sells his great uncle Brocklesby’s London home in Norfolk Street off fashionable Park Lane opposite Hyde Park, and finds himself a new address, he probably wished to love more modestly then his uncle had, at least until he established himself as a physician, and he probably also wanted to get away, though not far away, from his great uncles’ shade and the many memories—not all of them pleasant ones—that would have crowded him at 10 Norfolk Street, and perhaps he also sensed that he should locate himself nearer the emerging center of the medical profession, around Harley Street, and address that within a few decades would become synonymous with top-ranking physicians and surgeons, all these reasons would explain his choice of Welbeck Street (48 Welbeck St.), close to Harley Street, where he would live for the next 25 years, On June 27, [he had just turned 28 years old on June 13] Thomas writes to his friend, Andrew Dalzel, apologizing for the delay in writing to him “caused by ‘the confusion of furnishing and entering upon a house.’ There must have been a great many books and some scientific equipment to be transported, too, along with the furniture and pictures, by horse-drawn conveyance from Norfolk street. He continued: ‘I am employed in some further optical investigations, which I imagine, will be considered as more important than any of my former attempts, as I think they will establish almost incontrovertibly the undulatory system of light, and extend it to the explanation of an immense variety of phenomena. I have also some prospect of being in a situation which will enable and require me to devote more time to the pursuit of natural philosophy than I should otherwise think consistent with the profession of physic, but the idea is yet only an embryo.’ The ‘situation’ Young referred to was the tempting offer of the post of professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution, which would keep him busy with (entirely non-medical) lectures in 1802-03.” (The Last Man Who Knew Everything 68-70)

Sometime near the end of the year, Thomas Young gives another lecture to the Royal Society, this time titled “On the theory of light and colors” which was published in 1802, in it he put forward the theory of three-color vision (in 1672, Newton introduced the term ‘primary colors’ and pondered how many such colors there were, favoring seven) but in Thomas’ time, it had been reduced to three, usually red, yellow and blue, though the relationship between color and wavelength wasn’t known yet), but Thomas’ idea of undulatory/wave theory said that the retina might actually detect the sensation of color at different wavelengths for red, yellow and blue, and these would stimulate one of three receptors in the retina, the color green would stimulate both the blue and yellow receptors—this wouldn’t be scientifically proven until 1959 in the United States (see that year) (The Last Man Who Knew Everything, Pgs. 81-82)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 26 

 

1802

Thomas Jefferson is president and Aaron Burr is vice president – King George III is king of England – Alexander I is the Tsar of Russia – Charles IV is king of Spain – Frederick William III is the king of Prussia – Francis II is Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany

In May, Thomas Young ends his first lecturing course at England's Royal Institution in May, “Young’s lectures divided the fellows of the Royal Society and other scientists of his day into admirers willing to struggle through the thicket of his presentation, and detractors inclined to dismiss his incomprehensibility as something close to charlatanism,” (The Last Man Who Knew Everything, Pg. 86)

June 13, Thomas Young turns 29 

Thomas Young writes a letter to his friend, Andrew Dalzel, in which he states: “The theory of light and colors, though it did not occupy a large portion of time, I conceive to be of more importance than all that I have ever done, or ever shall do besides” (The Last Man Who Knew Everything, Pg. 95)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 27 

 

1803

Thomas Jefferson is president and Aaron Burr is vice president – King George III is king of England – Alexander I the tsar of Russia – Charles IV is king of Spain – Frederick William III is king of Prussia – Francis II is Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany

The United States purchases the territory of Louisiana from France for fifteen million dollars

Lewis and Clark begin their expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, which was the expedition to cross the newly acquired western portion of the country after the Louisiana Purchase, the Corps of Discovery was a select group of U.S. Army and civilian volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend second Lieutenant William Clark, the expedition made its way westward, and crossed the Continental Divide of the Americas until it reached the Pacific Coast, president Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in this same year to explore and map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, and to establish an American presence in this territory before European powers attempted to establish claims in the region

December 16, Jane Austen turns 28 

 

1804  

Thomas Jefferson is president and Aaron Burr is vice president – King George III of England is on the English throne (since 1760) – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Charles IV is on the Spanish throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis II is on the throne of the Holy Roman Empire and Germany

Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned Emperor of the French in Notre Dame cathedral

July 12, Alexander Hamilton dies, aged 47, (or 49, b. 1755 or 1757) in Greenwich, NY, in a gun duel with Aaron Bur 

Ranelagh Pleasure Gardens in London closes its gates after falling into disrepute

Lewis and Clark set out on their 3,700 mile journey from the Mississippi River to explore newly acquired western lands and find a route to the Pacific Ocean, they come across Sacagawea and her French-Canadian husband on their travels and they quickly hire her husband to serve as interpreter on their expedition, even though she was pregnant with her first child at 16 years old, she was chosen to accompany them on their mission, Lewis and Clark believed that her knowledge of the Shoshone language would help them later in their journey

Nathaniel Hawthorne is born in Salem Massachusetts

Nathan Rothschild becomes a naturalized citizen of England and sets up a BANK IN THE CITY OF LONDON

The Austrian Empire is formed and becomes a Central European multinational great power (until 1867 when it merges with the Kingdom of Hungary and becomes the Austro-Hungarian Empire), the Austrian Empire, along with Prussia, was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation (formed in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, it was a group of 39 mainly German speaking sovereign-states)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 29 

 

1805  

Thomas Jefferson is president and Aaron Burr is vice president (until March 4 when George Clinton becomes vice president for Thomas Jefferson’s second term) – King George III is on the throne of England – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Charles IV is on the Spanish throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis II is on the throne of the Holy Roman Empire and Germany– Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire

Joseph Smith (founder of Mormonism) is born in Sharon, Vermont

Sacagawea gives birth to her son, Jean Baptise Charbonneau, in February, later that year in November, Sacagawea was able to cast her vote on where to build a fort for the winter, and they built Fort Clatsop near present-day Astoria, Oregon and they remained there until March of the following year

December 16, Jane Austen turns 30 

 

1806 

Thomas Jefferson is president and George Clinton is vice presidentKing George III is on the throne of England – Alexander I is on the Russian Throne – Charles IV is on the Spanish throne – Frederick William III is on thePrussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire – Francis II is on the throne of the Holy Roman Empire and Germany (until August)

Napoleon states that he wants an arc de triopmhe in Paris (isn’t inaugurated until 1836)

The Holy Roman Empire is dissolved—in 1815 it resurrects/is replaced with the German Confederation (see the Congress of Vienna in 1815)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 31 

 

1807

Thomas Jefferson is president / George Clinton is vice presidentKing George III is on the throne of England – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Charles IV is on the Spanish throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of the Austrian Empire

February 23, William Wilberforce FINALLY has success, and The  Slave Trade Act of 1807 passes in Britain, prohibiting the slave trade in the British West Indies, it carried 283 to 16, accompanied by a chorus of hurrahs for Wilberforce, it became law on March 25 (the Act it did not prohibit the owning of slaves—that came in the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, see 1821 next) (Abraham Lincoln will be born in 2 years, 1809) (Encyclopedia Britannica)

The Peninsular War (1807-1814) begins, it’s a military conflict fought by Spain, England, and Portugal against the invading and occupying forces of France for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic wars, the war began when the French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807 by going through Spain, it escalated in 1808…

In London, the hanging of two murderers gathered a crowd of 40,000 people, but a stampeded occurred when at Green Arbour Court, opposite the debtors prison, a pieman stooped to pick up some of his broken wares and “some of the mob, not seeing what had happened, stumbled over him. No one who fell ever rose again…Only after the gallows had been taken down and the mob partly dispersed did the officers find the bodies of twenty-eight dead and hundreds injured.” (LTB 292-293)

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 48

December 16, Jane Austen turns 32

Friedrich Krupp owns a working forge in Essen, Germany, which makes not only kitchenware, stoves and weights, but also--under a subsidy from Berlin--cannonballs for Prussia (The Arms of Krupp, Pg. 31)

____

"Prussia was hatched from a cannonball."

- Napoleon Bonapart

 

1808

Thomas Jefferson is president / George Clinton is vice presidentKing George III is on the throne of England – Alexander I is on the Russian Throne – Ferdinand VII ascends to the Spanish throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire

The Peninsular War escalates after Napoleonic France occupies Spain, which had been its ally, Napoleon Bonaparte forces the abdications of Ferdinand VII and his father Charles IV King of Spain (Charles died on March 19), Napoleon then installs his brother, Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne and promulgates the Bayonne Constitution

May 2, the Spanish rebelled against the French occupation with the Dos de Mayo Uprising (which ended on April 17 1814)

Beethoven finishes his Symphony No. 5, one of the most famous pieces of music in the Classical era (he began it in 1804)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 33

 

1809  

Thomas Jefferson is president until March 4 when James Madison becomes president the 4th president of the United States and George Clinton continues as vice president under him (until 1812)King George III is on the throne of England – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire

January 19, Edgar Allen Poe is born in Boston, Massachusetts

February 12, Abraham Lincoln is born in Sinking Spring Farm, Kentucky, on the same day, Charles Darwin is born in Shropshire, England

May 31, Franz Joseph Haydn, the Austrian composer, dies (b. 1732), he had been a friend and mentor to Mozart and a tutor of Beethoven

Sacagawea and her husband leave her son in Clark’s care

The Rothschild banking family of England sets up their office in New Court, London, and is still there today in 2021 as “Rothschild & Co.” according to their website

Albert Pike is born in Boston, Massachusetts (he becomes a Freemason, and writes the satan-worshipping book “Morals and Dogma” in 1871

December 16, Jane Austen turns 34, during this year, she moved to a cottage in Chawton, Hampshire, where she will live until 1817, it overlooks the main road from London to Gosport (Portsmouth) as well as another road leading to Winchester (fyi the cottage is now a museum) (JAE 231)

 

1810

James Madison is president and George Clinton is vice presidentKing George III is on the throne of England – Alexander I is the tsar of Russia – Frederick William III is king of Prussia – Francis I is emperor of the Austrian Empire

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 1

The University of Berlin is founded and controlled by the Prussian Government, and goes on to create the Ph.D. program that becomes all the rage across Europe and America, George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is spearheading this movement for the Prussian Government, everyone will want a distinguished Ph.D. from the University of Berlin; though the D.Phil. (Doctor of Philosophy) existed centuries before this, it is this German Ph.D. that has made our modern doctoral programs (Wikipedia and prussiagate.substack.com), additionally, “It appears that the ‘Institute of Hegel’ was nothing more than a marketing campaign to attract the elitists of the world to their esteemed Prussian universities. Learning to endorse fellow brethren and speak mindless gibberish seemed to provide access to the club of Prussia [Karl Popper shows documented evidence that Hegel was seen as a nut job by contemporaries in his book The Open Society and its Enemies written between 1938-1945] –either through the newly formed PhD or entry into a secret society. Upon receiving membership, the elites would return back to their home-countries and receive some of the most prized career paths their nation offered. This was best illustrated in America with Skull and Bones. It must be acknowledged that this is one of the best plans of infiltration ever executed in human history. The ‘Institute of Hegel’ was a Prussian cult. What Hegel (Prussia) unleashed has been credited to the creation of radical communism and fascism, and the hundreds of millions of deaths that followed.” (prussiagate.substack.com)

_______

“Many of you readers have never heard of Hegel. But what if I were to tell you that this 19th century philosopher might have been the most evil man to ever live. For the philosophy that he created would go on to cause the deaths of anywhere between 150 to 230 million people in the 20th century. For his ideas would go on to form the foundation of two of the world’s most heinous ideologies, fascism and communism.” (written on November 1, 2018)

The German composer, Robert Schumann, is born in Zwickau, Kingdom of Saxony

Mayer Amschel Rothschild begins a banking partnership with his three eldest sons

The reconstituted government of Spain has moved into exile and fortified itself up in the secure port of Cadíz, but it can’t raise enough effective armies because it is besieged by 70,000 French troops, however, British and Portuguese forces eventually secured Portugal, using it as a safe position from which to launch campaigns against the French army and provide whatever supplies they could get to the Spanish, while the Spanish armies and guerrillas tied down vast numbers of Napoleon’s troops, these combined forces prevented Napoleon’s marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces, and the war continued through years of stalemate

March 1, The Polish composer, Frederic Chopin is born (d. 1849)

April 27, Beethoven composes Für Elise

December 16, Jane Austen turns 35

 

1811

James Madison is president and George Clinton is vice president – King George the III’s illness worsens and his son George IV becomes Prince Regent of England and thus begins the Regency Period of English history (he later ascends the throne in 1820) – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 2

Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s son, Jacob Rothschild, is sent to Paris to enhance the family’s ability to operate across Europe, this enabled the Rothschilds to profit from the opportunity of financing Wellington’s armies in Portugal requiring the sourcing of large quantities of gold on behalf of the British government (Wikipedia)

The book, Sense and Sensibility, by Jane Austen is published

December 16, Jane Austen turns 36

 

1812

James Madison becomes is president – King George III is on the English throne, but the Prince Regent is power – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is emperor of the Austrian Empire

February 7, Charles Dickens is born on February 7 in Portsmouth, England

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 3

The War of 1812 takes place in which the United States takes on the greatest naval power in the world, Great Britain, “the United States suffered many costly defeats at the hand of British, Canadian and Native American troops over the course of 1812, including the capture and burning of the nation’s capital Washington D.C. in August 1814” (history.com)

Sacagawea gives birth to her daughter named Lisette and later dies (reportedly), after her death Clark looked after her two children and ultimately took custody of them both

September 19, the original Mayer Amschel Rothschild dies, aged 68 years old, in Frankfurt, Germany, and his son Baron Amschel Mayer Rothschild takes over the Rothschild Frankfurt am Main bank in Germany

Napoleon has a disastrous invasion of Russia

Napoleon says he will reward anyone who can come up with the Englishman's steel formula (because at this time, only Sheffield, England was an exporter of steel and kept the formula for it secret)

Frederich Krupp's steel endeavor is funded by two Prussian brothers who are both retired army officers  give him the Englishman's formula to make steel , The Prussian officers sign a contract with him, 

An earthquake in San Juan Capistrano, California causes the Great Stone Church at the mission to collapse

December 16, Jane Austen turns 37

 

1813

PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & KINGS: James Madison is president of the USA – King George III is king of England, but the Prince Regent, George IV is power – Alexander I is the tsar of Russia – Frederick William III is the king of Prussia/Germany – Francis I is emperor of the Austrian Empire

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 1

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 4

The book, Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen is published

English Admiral Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane (1758-1832), who is governor of the island of Guadeloupe (from January 1810-1814) presents an archaeological find to the British Museum, a skeleton of a woman that had been found by the French before the English had won the island from them; He became aware of the skeleton last year; The skeleton is being prepared to be examined by naturalist Georges Cuvier (1769-1832); The bed of rock she was found in was close to the Le Moule on the north-eastern coast of Guadeloupe and was the source of numerous skeletons, of which this was just one (another one is later sent to Paris); It is worth noting that there has been a story going around the internet & YouTube that this skeleton was found in rock that is 28 million years old, but so far I haven’t seen any evidence that this was ever actually been the consensus among geologists; There is another story that this skeleton was taken off display “quietly” in 1881, but it seems as though it was simply moved to the brand new Natural History Museum that had opened that same year and was on display there until 1967—we must always check our facts! (https://creation.com/the-guadeloupe-skeleton)

Giuseppe Verdi (Italian composer) is born in Busseto, Parma, Italy (composes lots of music in the 1840s, d. 1901)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 38

 

1814

PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & KINGS: James Madison is president – King George III is on the English throne, but the Prince Regent, George IV, is in power – Alexander I is the tsar of Russia – Frederick William III is the king of Prussia/Germany – Francis I is emperor of the Austrian Empire

January 29, Johann Gottlieb Fichte dies (b. 1762), aged 51, in Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia, he is known for saying...

_____

“Education should aim at destroying free will so that after pupils are thus schooled, they will be incapable throughout the rest of their lives of thinking or acting otherwise than as their school masters would have wished.”

- Johann Gottlieb Fitche

 

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 2

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 5

During the summer, the Prince Regent (Prince of Wales, and future King George IV) helps Louis XVIII celebrate his restoration to the French throne of the House of Bourbon by processing him in a state carriage through London, and after a short stay, Louis is escorted by the Royal Navy on his return to France, this all followed the abdication of the emperor Napoleon on April 6

August 1, the Prince Regent hosted lavish celebrations in the parks of central London to mark the Hanoverian (German) accession, the celebrations included the erection of a spectacular seven-story Chinese pagoda in St. James Park and of arcades and roundabouts in Hyde Park, meanwhile, a ‘sea battle’ was enacted on the waters of the Serpentine, after dark, fireworks lit the sky above Green Park, where a gothic castle had been temporarily built

August 8, Caroline, the Princess of Wales by marriage to the Prince Regent, left the Prince Regent and returned to her native Duchy of Brunswick (northern Germany), this followed many years of open marital difficulties exacerbated by the fact that the Princess was far more popular than the dissolute prince with the British public, the Prince of Wales was not only openly unfaithful with a string of mistresses, but also tried to exclude the princess from public life (RB 204-5)

Sir Walter Scott’s novel Waverley is published, it deals with the Jacobite uprising of 1745, an event still remembered by many when Jane Austen was born (JAE Intro xx)

The book Mansfield Park, by Jane Austen is published

Napoleon Bonaparte is no longer emperor of France

Washington (not called Washington D.C., it isn't the District of Columbia yet) is burned because of the War of 1812

 

1815

James Madison is president – King George III is on the English throne, but the Prince Regent is power – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire – Napoleon Bonaparte is briefly Emperor of France again during the Hundred Days

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 3

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 6

Mount Tambora in Indonesia erupts and causes climate change and famine in Europe

Sunday June 18, the Battle of Waterloo is fought near Waterloo in Belgium and Napoleon is defeated

The German Realist painter, Adolph von Menzel is born, he is considered to be one of the most prominent German painters of the 19th century (d. 1905)

Jane Austen visits the Prince Regent’s (George IV) London home, Carlton House, at his invitation

The Congress of Vienna takes place, forming the German Confederation—an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states, and created as a replacement for the Holy Roman Empire which has dissolved in 1806

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 56 

December 16, Jane Austen turns 39

 

1816

PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & KINGS: James Madison is president – King George III is on the English throne, but the Prince Regent is power – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 4

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 7

The book Emma, by Jane Austen is published

April 21, The author of Jane Eyre, Charlotte Brontë, is born in Thornton, Yorkshire, England (d. 1855, aged only 38)

Most of the streets of London are gas lit by this year, but gas lighting is still distrusted, and most homes are not gas lit

The Christmas hymn “Silent Night” is written by a young Austrian priest named Joseph Mohr, he wrote it in German just after the end of the Napoleonic Wars, “In the fall of 1816, Mohr’s congregation in the town of Mariapfarr was reeling. Twelve years of war had decimated the country’s political and social infrastructure. Meanwhile, the previous year, one historian would later dub “The Year Without a Summer” had been catastrophically cold,” due to the eruption of Indonesia’s Mount Tambora in 1815 (theconversation.com)

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 57 

December 16, Jane Austen turns 40 

A portrait of Marie-Thérèse, Marie Antionette's daughter, is painted by Antonine-Jean Gros; Though the old monarchy was abolished in 1793 when her mom and dad were executed in the French Revolution, she was still known as the Duchess of Angoulême (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

 

1817

PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & KINGS: James Monroe becomes the 5th president of the United States on March 4 – King George III is on the English throne, but the Prince Regent is power – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire (he was the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in 1806)

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 5

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 8

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 1

July 12, Henry David Thoreau is born in Concord, MA

July 18, Jane Austen dies, aged 40 yeas old, in Winchester and is buried in Winchester Cathedral

Repairs begin on the arch of Titus in Rome

Mohr transfers to the parish church of St. Nicholas in the town of Oberndorf, just south of Salzburg in the Austrian Empire, there he asks his friend Franz Xaver Gruber, a local schoolteacher and organist to write the music for the six verses of “Silent Night”

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 58 

 

1818

PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS & KINGS: James Monroe is the president – King George III is on the English throne, but the Prince Regent is power – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 6

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 9

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 1

May 5, Karl Marx is born in Trier, Germany

May 29, The mother of the future Queen Victoria of England, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Gotha (she’s German and only speaks German), marries King George III’s son Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn on May 29 in Amorbach and on July 11 in Kew

On Christmas Eve, Mohr and his friend Franz sang “Silent Night” together for the first time in front of Mohr’s congregation, with Mohr playing his guitar, “the song was apparently well-received by Mohr’s parishioners, most of whom worked as boat-builders and shippers in the salt trade that was central to the economy of the region, the melody and harmonization of “Silent Night” is actually based on an Italian musical style called the “siciliana” that mimics the sound of water and rolling waves: two large rhythmic beats, split into three parts each. In this way, Gruber’s music reflected the daily soundscape of Mohr’s congregation, who lived and worked along the Salzach River.” (theconversation.com) – later this song would be sung together by German and British soldiers on the front lines in Flanders as they laid down their arms on Christmas Eve during the Christmas Truce of 1914

 

1819

James Monroe is the president – King George III is on the English throne, but the Prince Regent is in power – Alexander I is on the Russian throne – Frederick William III is on the Prussian throne – Francis I is on the throne of Austrian Empire

The ruler of Egypt and Sudan, Muhammed Ali, gives Britain Cleopatra’s Needle, and Egyptian obelisk (one is later given to the US in 1881 and Paris in the 1830s) in commemoration of Lord Nelson’s victory at the Battle of the Nile in 1801; The obelisk stands in London on the Victoria Embankment, near the Embankment entrance to the Underground

February 7, Charles Dickens turns 7

February 12, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin turn 10

April 21, Charlotte Brontë turns 2

May 5, Karl Marx turns 1

May 24, Queen Victoria is born at Kensington Palace to Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Gotha and King George III’s son Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (and so is actually very German, as will be children, since she marries her first cousin, Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who is also born in this year on December 14

November 23, Josiah Whitney (American geologist after which Mount Whitney is named) is born in Northhampton Massachusetts, he was the oldest of 12 children and his father was Josiah Dwight Whitney of the New England Dwight Family (see the year 1634)

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 60

The Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia (later King Frederick William IV) decides to have the ancestral seat of the Hohenzollern Castle (in Germany) reconstructed (see 1844) (https://www.burg-hohenzollern.com/castle-history.html)

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