1770-1789 - We're Not Gonna Take It, No, We're Not Gonna Take It

Intro

Music

Photo

 

1770 

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne (since 1759) – Louis XV is on the French throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

August 27, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is born in Stuttgart, Duchy of Württemberg, he becomes a German philosopher, and is considered one of the most important figures in German idealism and one of the founding figures of Western philosophy, with his influence extending to the entire range of contemporary philosophical issues, from aesthetics to ontology and politics (Wikipedia) He also goes to work for the Prussian government (read Karl Popper’s [1902-1994] book, written between 1938-1945, in which he devotes two chapters to Hegel, blaming him as one of the reasons for the rise of Germany’s totalitarianism) (prussiagate.substack.com) 

May 16, the future King Louis XVI of France marries the 14 year old Habsburg Archduchess, Maria Antonia (Marie Antoinette), his second Cousin once removed, and the youngest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I (he died in 1765)

Russia is at war with the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War

“I am quite familiar at the Chapter Coffee-house,” writes Thomas Chatterton to his mother in May 1770, “and know all the geniuses there,” the haunt of booksellers and aspiring writers, the Chapter was situated on the corner of Paternoster Row, opposite Ivy Lane, and was characteristic of its class with small-paned windows, wainscoted walls and low ceilings with heavy beams, making it dark even at noon, when Chatterton wrote of the geniuses he may have been referring to a small club of publishers and writers who always sat in a box in the north-east corner of the house and called themselves the “Wet Paper Club” when they chose to recommend “a good book,” it was of course one that had sold extensively and rapidly, in this context and company, it is perhaps worth recalling that Chatterton’s apparent suicide was considered to be the direct result of his inability to profit from the commercial practices of the London publishing world, The Chapter was also known for having poor parsons who were in hire to perform Sunday duty and who also wrote sermons on request, “A buyer had only to name his subject and doctrine” and the appropriate pious lesson would be delivered (London the Autobiography, Pg. 316)

The physician, John Hunter’s lectures “split London’s surgical fraternity down the middle: one half acclaimed Hunter as a genius and his lectures as inspired, the other half condemned him as a charlatan and his lecturers as incomprehensible,” it is Hunter’s school in London that Thomas Young will later attend during the autumn of 1793, by which time John Hunter is ailing and will suddenly die that October (LMWKE 85 and 35)

“On a Monday night, a group of British soldiers and their captain, Thomas Preston, stood watch over Boston. They were among a contingent of military men sent to the colonies to quell unrest over a variety of taxes: taxes on paper, taxes on glass, and, most famously, taxes on tea. The colonists resented the presence of the troops and had long taunted them. On this night however, one of the soldiers snapped, firing into the crowd of jeering Bostonians, by the time the guns were quiet, five colonists lay dead. The event became known as the Boston Massacre.” (STLA 47)

December 17, Ludwig van Beethoven is born in Bonn, German Empire/Holy Roman Empire

 

1771 

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the

Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy) – Russia is at war with the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War –

 

1772 

King George III is on the throne of EnglandCatherine the Great is on the

Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy) – Russia is at war with the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War –  On September 9, at the Old Bailey in London, Alice Walker is sentenced to transportation to America as an indentured servant for stealing a canvas bag with some money in it, she then set sail the next year (see 1773) – Some Rhode Islanders burn the large English tax collecting ship the Gaspee, and England instructs Stephen Hopkins (later a signer of the Declaration of Independence) to send the men responsible back to the motherland to stand trial but Hopkins refuses, after this there was no doubt where he stood in the developing conflict between the colonies and England (STLA 57)

1773  – King George III is on the throne of EnglandCatherine the Great is on the

Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy) – Russia is at war with the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War – In March, a woman named Alice Walker boards the Justitia to be transported to America for her crime of stealing, the ship lands at Rappahannock, Virginia, in March 1773, like her fellow convicts, she was sold as an indentured servant—effectively a slave—to plantation owners looing for labor, the local newspaper, the Virginia Gazette, carried advertisements for such sales, only a few weeks after she was purchased by two prominent members of the colony, Sampson and George Matthews, she escaped for freedom, and was even able to sail back to England, but she was recaptured there and sentenced to 14 years transportation (JAE 281-2) – Thomas Young is born on June 13 in Milverton, England, the eldest of ten children, almost immediately after his birth to his Quaker parents, they send him to live his mother’s dad, he quickly becomes a child prodigy (LMWKE 16) – Edward Gibbon begins writing his book The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire while living at 7 Bentink Square, the new up and coming area to live in, and where Thomas Young will move to in 1801 (LMWKE 69) – In London, “Eventually the noise in the coffee houses, such as Jonathan’s or Garraway’s in Change Alley, grew too loud, and the jobbers removed to New Jonathan’s which in the summer of 1773 was renamed ‘The Stock Exchange.’” (now see 1795) (LTB 301) – The Boston Tea Party takes place on December 16 in Boston, Massachusetts

1774 – King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the

Russian throne – King Louis XV of France dies on May 10, aged 64, and his

son Louis XVI ascends the throne, he is the last of the French kings, as the

monarchy is abolished in 1793 when he and his wife, Marie Antoinette of

Austria are executed – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy

Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy) – The London Building Acts

are consolidated into a new Building Act which specifies different ‘rates’ of houses. “This dictated the form and design of much of London for over a century…a family of building types emerged, from the highest first rate house with a five bay frontage and a linked mews building to the modest fifth rate dwelling just one room deep.” (LL 10) – Catherine the Great in Russia is victorious over the Ottoman Empire and the Russo-Turkish War ends (began in 1768), Russia’s victory brought Kabardia, part of Moldavia, the Yedsian between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence (Wikipedia) – Thomas Young turns 1 year old on June 13

 

1775 

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the

Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French

throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy

Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

The Battles of Lexington and Concord are fought on April 19, beginning the American Revolutionary War

The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia on May 10 and “delegates worked, as their constituents insisted, for reconciliation with the mother country and ardently denied that the Americans wanted to found a ‘new empire’” (Intro to my copy of the Declaration of Independence)

June 13, Thomas Young turns 2 years old and is already reading fluently (LMWKE 18)

Mayer Amschel Rothschild is 31 years old right now 

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 16 years old

In October, Construction begins on the San Juan Capistrano Mission, but is abandoned after a week, due to the San Diego Mission being destroyed by a Kumeyaay war party at the beginning of November, so the priests had to go with the soldiers to reinforce the garrison there

December 16, Jane Austen is born 

 

1776

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne (Prussia has only existed since 1701) – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

The delegates of the Second Continental Congress are still working to patch things up with the mother country until January of this year, when it is obvious that George III is still hostile to America, and so they decide to openly say they are for separating from England (Intro to my copy of the Declaration of Independence)

January 9, the first copies of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense appear and spread like wild fire through the country

February 22, George Washington turns 44 years old 

May 1 (or May Day) the first order of the BAVARIAN ILLUMINATI [NOT FREEMASONRY, THAT IS ALREADY FOUNDED, THERE IS A LODGE IN NEW YORK, ST. JOHN’S LODGE NO.2 (FOUNDED DECEMBER 7, 1757), THAT IS ALREADY IN OPERATION] is founded by Adam Weishaupt he was “a former Jesuit priest” and “professor of canon law at Ingolstadt” (according to Encyclopedia Britannica) who was influenced by Voltaire to look into the occult, this is the first time the word Illuminati is used to describe an organization, and he builds his first lodge—Mayer Amschel Rothschild is 32 years old now, and is financing and plotting with Adam, they needed to disguise it as if the Jews were the ones wanting to take over the world, he told his sons to keep everything in the bloodline and marry second cousins, never give any account of how much you own, the Russians were the only ones that wouldn’t allow the Rothschilds a foothold in their country, so the Rothschilds began to plot against the Tzar, the Illuminati doesn’t have an allegiance to any country, they see things as “us and them,” THE ILLUMINATI SETS UP A SYSTEM WHEREBY THEY WILL ULTIMATELY CONTROL THE WORLD, THEY SEE THE WORLD AS SPLIT INTO TWO KINDS OF PEOPLE “WE THE ENLIGHTENED” AND “THOSE WHO NEED TO BE CONTROLLED” according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the movement was “short lived”

June 7, Richard Henry Lee, a delegate from Virginia, acting on instructions from the convention, or extralegal assembly, that rules his state, asked Congress to approve a set of resolutions, of which the first said: “That these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved”

June 8, the delegates discuss Lee’s motion and then again on Saturday, June 10, the debates are heated, as we know from notes taken by the thirty-three-year-old Virginia delegate named Thomas Jefferson (intro to my copy of The Declaration of Independence)

June 11, Congress appointed a committee to draft a declaration that could be issued if Congress adopted independence, the committee has five members: Jefferson, who is a poor speaker and so seldom takes part in congressional debates, but has a great gift for writing public documents; John Adams of Massachusetts, perhaps Congress’ most outspoken and persistent advocate of independence; Robert E. Livingston, who had argued for delay in the debates of June and whose home state, New York, is especially hesitant to leave the Empire; the judicious Roger Sherman of Connecticut, and Pennsylvania’s Benjamin Franklin, one of the oldest and most distinguished delegates, but a man so afflicted with gout that he attended few if any of the drafting committee’s meetings (DOI 6)

June 13, Thomas Young turns 3

August 2, the Second Continental Congress unanimously adopts the Declaration of Independence, announcing the colonies’ separation from Great Britain and signs the document, this document begins: “WHEN IN THE COURSE OF HUMAN EVENTS, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which had connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.  WE HOLD THESE TRUTHS TO BE SELF-EVIDENT, THAT ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL, THAT THEY ARE ENDOWED BY THEIR CREATOR WITH CERTAIN UNALIABLE RIGHTS, THAT AMONG THESE ARE LIFE, LIBERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS…But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design TO REDUCE THEM UNDER ABSOLUTE DESPOTISM [the movement in Europe created by the Enlightenment/Illuminati/Freemasons was called “Enlightened Despotism” (according to Encyclopedia.com it is now referred to as “Enlightened Absolutism” sounds much nicer, don’t you think? Despotism means tyranny. “Enlightened Tyranny” is still Tyranny, no matter how “good” and “enlightened” you think you are)—interesting that the definition of absolute despotism sounds great according to the Encyclopedia Britannica] IT IS THEIR RIGHT, IT IS THEIR DUTY, TO THROW OFF SUCH GOVERNMENT, AND TO PROVIDE NEW GUARDS FOR THEIR FUTURE SECURITY.”

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 17

November 1, The San Juan Capistrano mission is founded on by the Spanish in the colonial Las Californias, it was established to expand the territorial boundaries of Spain and to spread Christianity to the native peoples of California

December 16, Jane Austen turns 1

 

1777

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king)  – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

October 17, the British suffer their worst defeat against the American colonies at Saratoga where General John Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire army, this action turned the balance of the war, as France now recognized the independence of the colonies and sent support (BKQ 360)

November 15, Congress (in the US) adopts the Constitution, “Americans were every bit as hesitant to create a new “American Empire”—a national government with substantial power over the states—as they had been to leave the British Empire. Surely they were not prepared in 1776 to grant such a government powers they had recently denied Parliament, such as the power to tax and to regulate trade. Congress took two days to edit and adopt the Declaration of Independence, but more than a year to approve a much-revised and substantially weakened version of the Articles of Confederation first proposed by the drafting committee. Finally, on November 15, 1777, Congress adopted the document and asked the states to ratify it quickly, hopefully by March 10, 1778. But the Articles of Confederation did not get the necessary unanimous consent of the states until March 1781—about eight months before the American victory at Yorktown and the end of the Revolutionary War

December 16, Jane Austen turns 2 years old

 

1778

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) along with Marie Antoinette – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

January 10, Carl Linnaeus dies, he had invented the binomial classification system for organisms, and is considered the “Father of Taxonomy,” as well as a pioneer in ecology, he was the one of the first to describe relationships between living things and their environments

Voltaire dies in Paris, in the Kingdom of France, aged 83 (b. 1694)

June 13, Thomas Young turns 6 years old, and by this time, he had read the Bible twice through (which means by this time the Bible was definitely a household book), he had also read Jonathan Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travels and Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (The Last Man Who Knew Everything)

England’s war against the American colonies continues on

December 16, Jane Austen turns 3

 

1779

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

August 9, Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupts again

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 20

The 5th Duke of Devonshire and Duchess Georgiana replace the gritstone floor with the black and white marble floor with the diamond shapes (as seen in the 2005 Pride & Prejudice film) (present red carpeted staircase will be built in 1912) (Chatsworth guidebook)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 4

 

1780

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

In the 1780s, a German visitor to London wrote that “In Oxford Road alone there are more lamps than in all the city of Paris.” (London the Autobiography, Pg. 302)

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 21, and during this year, he enters the House of Commons (he is not a Christian yet, see 1784) with the future prime minister William Pitt the Younger (who he’d become close friends with at St. John’s College at the University of Cambridge), and he soon begins to support parliamentary reform and Roman Catholic political emancipation, “acquiring a reputation for radicalism that later embarrassed him, especially during the French Revolutions (especially when he is chosen as an honorary citizen of France in September 1792)

King George III clashes often with Pitt (English Prime Minister) over Catholic Emancipation, such measures had been the downfall of past kings, especially James II, and even the merest hint of equality had resulted in the Gordon Riots of June 1780 when the MP, George Gordon, incited disorder throughout London, leading to widespread destruction of property and about 300 deaths – Jane Austen turns 5 years old on December 16

David Cusick, a Tuscarora artist and author is born (at least somewhere between 1780-1785), he goes on to write David Cusick’s Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations (1827), which may be the first account of Native American history and myth written and published in English; David’s father is a Revolutionary War veteran, and an interpreter for the Congregationalist mission to the Seneca

 

1781

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

Princess Juliane Henriette Ulrike of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld is born to Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, she later marries the Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia [Russian Court—though she hates her marriage and they separate with no children]

William Herschel discovers the planet Uranus with his homemade telescope

America wins the American Revolutionary war after the British surrender at Yorktown (though fighting continues until 1783)

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 21

December 16, Jane Austen turns 6

 

1782

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

The “First English Language Bible” is printed in America

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 22

December 16, Jane Austen turns 7

 

1783

King George III is on the throne of England – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

Fighting between the Americans and the British finally stops

After their defeat, the British leave the small port town of St. Augustine, Florida, and its Fort San Marcos (it had served as a British outpost during the Civil War) and the town and fort begin their second Spanish period which lasts until 1821 (the Spanish arrive next year)

John Michell writes a pioneering paper on black holes and points out that a black hole can still be detected even though it doesn’t emit light because it will have a gravitational force on nearby objects

The last hanging at Tyburn in London takes place

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 23

December 16, Jane Austen turns 8

December 19, William Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister on (Tory) he will remain the Prime Minister for 17 years until 1801

A portrait of famous Welsh actress Sarah Siddons (1755-1831) as "The Tragic Muse" is painted by Joshua Reynolds (Photo Credit: Rennett Stowe, Wikimedia Commons)

 

1784

King George III is on the throne of England / William Pitt is prime minister –Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

Ernest I is born to Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, on January 2 in Coburg, Holy Roman Empire, he is their eldest son and later becomes the father of Prince Albert (b. 1819) who then marries his niece (his sister Victoria’s daughter) Queen Victoria (b. 1819), in 1840 [English throne – through Prince Albert]

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 24, and also in this year, he converts to Christianity

St. Augustine and Fort San Marcos, in Florida, in Spanish America, is in its second Spanish period

December 16, Jane Austen turns 9 

 

1785  

King George III is on the throne of England / William Pitt is prime minister –Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

January 4, Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm (of the Brothers Grimm) is born in Hanau, Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel, in the Holy Roman (German) Empire (d. 1863), his brother Wilhelm will be born next year

March 27, Louis Charles is born at the Palace of Versailles to Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI, he is the second son and third child of the royal couple (d. 1795 when he is 10 years old, his parents will be executed in 1793 and he becomes king in the eyes of the Royalists)

March 28, Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Gotha is born to Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf (he will grow up to be a general of cavalry in the Austrian Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars—despite remaining Lutheran, he established the Catholic branch of the family which eventually gained the thrones of Portugal (1837) and Bulgaria (1887) [Portuguese and Bulgarian thrones]

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 25

October 31, Prince Wilhelm I (Rothschild’s patron) becomes William IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, of Germany, and the Holy Roman Empire, upon his father’s death, he is said to have inherited one of the largest fortunes in Europe at the time

“Asukayama at Cherry Blossom Time,” a woodblock print is made (approx. year) by Tori Kiyonaga who was known for his plein-air compositions containing graceful figures which greatly vitalized Ukiyoe art at the end of the eighteenth century, Now housed in the British Museum (CBM 185)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 10

 

1786

King George III is on the throne of England / William Pitt is the English prime minister – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne until August 17 when Frederick William III ascends the throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

February 24, Wilhelm Carl Grimm (of the Brothers Grimm) is born in Hanau, Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel in the Holy Roman Empire (d. 1859) (his brother Jacob was born last year)

August 2, Margaret Nicholson, a house maid, threatens King George III’s life with a dessert knife

August 17, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Gotha is born to Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saafeld and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, Princess Victoria becomes Queen Victoria’s mother by marrying one of King George III of England’s sons (who is also German), Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, in 1818 [Germany on the English throne through Queen Victoria]

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 26 

December 16, Jane Austen turns 11

 

1787 

George III is king of England / William Pitt is prime minister – Catherine the Great is on the Russian throne – Charles III is on the Spanish throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick William II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 27 

December 16, Jane Austen turns 12

 

1788 

King George III is on the throne of England / William Pitt is prime minister –Catherine the Great is tsarina of Russia – Charles III is on the Spanish throne until he dies on December 14 and Charles IV ascends the throne – Louis XVI is on the French throne (last French king) – Frederick William II is on the Prussian throne – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany and Italy)

March 29, Charles Wesley dies

Sacagawea is born (approx.) to a Shoshone chief in America

Carl Rothschild is born in Frankfurt, Germany to Mayer Amschel Rothschild

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 28

December 16, Jane Austen turns 13

 

1789  

George Washington becomes the 1st president of the United States – George III is king of England/William Pitt is the English Prime Minister – Catherine the Great is tsarina of Russia – Charles IV is king of Spain – Louis XVI is king of France (last French king) – Frederick William II is king of Prussia – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor (this includes Germany)

French Revolution begins

Thomas Jefferson returns to America from being an ambassador to France

March 4, the Congress of the United States established by the new Constitution meets for the first time at New York City’s Federal Hall

August 24, William Wilberforce turns 29 years old, during this year he introduces 12 resolutions against the slave trade and gave what many newspapers at the time considered among the most eloquent speeches ever delivered in the Commons, the resolutions were supported by William Pitt, the prime minister and a college friend of Wilberforce’s, Charles Fox (who is often an opponent of Pitt’s) and Edmund Burke, but the resolutions fail to be enacted into law, and instead the issue is postponed until the next session of Parliament (see 1791 when he brings the motion to the House of Commons)

December 16, Jane Austen turns 14 

December 17, Ludwig Beethoven turns 19 

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