1730-1749 A.D. - The Great Awakening & Catherine the Great

Intro

Body

Photo

Music

 

1730 

King George II is on the English throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne 

Peter II becomes seriously ill after attending an Epiphany Day feast on a frosty day, he is rushed to the palace standing on the back of his sleigh, the doctors diagnose smallpox, he orders horses so that he can go see his sister Natalya, who had died in 1728, and a few minutes later he dies at the age of 14 and Anna Ivanovna ascends the Russian throne 

The Great Awakening begins impacting the English colonies in America during the 1730’s and the 1740’s led by John and Charles Wesley

Thomas Brown notes of London  that “to see the number of taverns, alehouses etc. he would imagine Bacchus the only God that is worshipp’d there” (LTB 340)

 

1731

King George II is on the English throne – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

March 11, Thomas Treat Pain, a Bostonian and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, is born (d. 1814)

 

1732  

King George II is on the English throne – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington is born in Popes Creek, Virginia, British America 

The “Bank of England in 1732 rose to be continually embellished and enlarged.” (London the Autobiography)

William Hogarth begins painting A Rake’s Progress, produced between 1732-1734

Carl Linnaeus travels throughout Sweden, particularly in Lapland and northwest Sweden in order to record and collect information on the country’s natural resources (he later establishes the binomial system, the two naming classification system of organisms) between 1732-1735 

 

1734

King George II is on the English throne – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 1

Nordkirchen Palace is completed in Germany

The original Royal Palace of Madrid is burned to the ground, and Felipe V decides to build a new Royal Palace in the exact same spot (VGRPM Intro)

King George II and Queen Caroline meet a delegation led by the native American chieftain, Tomo Chachi (along with his nephew Toonahowi, and his entire tribe, visit Kensington Palace) at Kensington Palace, along with the proprietors and settlers of the new colony Georgia, named after the king, there is a black and white painting of the chief and his nephew at Kensington Palace (Kensington Palace Guidebook)

 

1735

King George II is on the English throne – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 2

Carl Linnaeus travels to the University of Harderwihk in Holland where he very quickly takes his medical degree, he spends the next three years travelling to Germany, France and England, at one point he even becomes the supervisor of the wealthy banker George Clifford’s zoo and gardens while he is in Holland, and it’s also during this time that he is able to publish the first of many of his scientific papers and books (on binomial classification of organisms)

 

1736

King George II is on the English throne – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 3

John Staples (later the Right Honorable John Staples, and Irish Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons from 1765-1802—and also the great, great grandfather of C.S. Lewis [Clive Staples Lewis]) is born on March 1 (d. 1820), he was one of thirteen children of the Rev. Thomas Staples of Lissan House (created in 1622, see that year)

 

1737

King George II is on the English throne, his queen consort, Queen Caroline dies this year, and the court loses much of its sparkle, according to Horace Walpole “the king has locked up half the palace [Kensington Palace] since the Queen’s death” (Kensington Palace Guidebook) – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 4

January 12, John Hancock, one of the signers of The Declaration of Independence, is born (d. 1793)

 

1738

King George II is on the English throne – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne –

February 22, George Washington turns 5

 

1739

King George II is on the English throne – Anna Ivanovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick William I is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 6

The hymn “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” is written by Charles Wesley – Catherine the Great (then known as Sophie), at the age of 10, meets her future husband, Peter III, who is in line to be the Russian Emperor, according to her memoirs, she disliked him very much, and wrote that she stayed at one end of the castle and Peter at the other

 

1740

King George II is on the English throne Ivan VI is only two months old when he is proclaimed as emperor of Russia and his mother as regentFrederick II (the third king of Prussia, and King George I’s grandson through his daughter Sophia Dorothea of Hanover—so Sophia is the sister of King George II who is on the English throne at this time, so King George II is Fredrich’s uncle) ascends to the Prussian throne on May 31 (b. 1712 in Berlin, Germany / r. until 1786 / d. 1786) – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 7

Frederick II of Prussia is a brilliant military campaigner who, in a series of diplomatic stratagems and wars against Austria and other powers, greatly enlarges Prussia’s territories and makes Prussia the foremost military power in Europe, he is an “enlightened absolute monarch,” which means he believed in something called “enlightened despotism” or “benevolent despotism,” which is supposed to be all about religious tolerance and the pursuit of legal, social and educational REFORMS (what kind I wonder?) inspired by the Enlightenment [this is interesting because in 36 years, the American Declaration of Independence says “But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty to THROW OFF SUCH GOVERNMENT and to provide new guards for their future security,” the founding fathers did not see enlightened despotism as a good thing, they saw it for what it was—tyranny masquerading as benevolence] Fredrich II is one of the top prominent historical figures in modern Germany, he emerges into history as a leading exponent of the ideas of “enlightened government,” which are at this time becoming an influential throughout Europe, his example did much to strengthen and spread these ideas (Encyclopedia Britannica

The Italian scholar, Lodovico Muratori, discovers and publishes the Muratori Canon (c. 180) which lists almost all the New Testament books in the Bible

The Great Awakening continues in the English colonies in America through the 1740s

In the 1740s, there were no medical schools set up in London, so a man named William Hunter set one up in a house in Covent Garden, then later moved it to Soho, on Great Windmill Street, just off Piccadilly Circus, it was called the Hunterian School of Anatomy (Thomas Young would attend here in 1793) (The Last Man Who Knew Everything, Pg. 35)

War of the Austrian Succession begins (ends 1748) – Jacobite uprising takes place

Benjamin Huntsman in Sheffield, England, perfects steel casting, and Sheffield becomes the nearly sole exporter of steel to the continent, as it is the only place that can make it in great quantities (The Arms of Krupp, Pg. 33)

 

1741

King George II is on the English throne Ivan VI’s (who is only a year old) is succeeded by Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna, his first cousin twice removed, when she seizes the Russian throne in a coup and has Ivan and his mother (who was regent) thrown into prison on December 6, Elizaveta reigns until 1762, Ivan dies in prison, aged 23 in 1764 – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 8

The War of the Austrian Succession continues

Carl Linnaeus becomes professor of botany at Uppsala University, a charismatic teacher, he surrounds himself with students, the most gifted of whom he sends on voyages of exploration, his ‘apostles,’ as he called them, crossed the continents in order to bring back new plants and animals, which carl would then name according to his new binomial system of nomenclature (some specimens die en route)   (https://www.linnean.org/learning/who-was-linnaeus/career-and-legacy)

 

1742

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 9

The Ranelagh Pleasure Gardens opens in Chelsea, London, its chief attraction was its Rotunda with its orchestra in the center and tiered boxes around, the gardens also offered the same fare as other pleasure gardens: dancing, tableaux, refreshments (Ranleagh’s half a crown entrance fee included punch and coffee), promenading and discreet corners for courting, by the new century, however, the gardens had sunk into seediness and disrepute (Ranelagh closed its gates in 1804) (LTA 225) 

War of the Austrian Succession continues

 

1743

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 10

April 13, Thomas Jefferson is born in Shadwell, Virginia

War of the Austrian Succession continues

 

1744

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne

February 22, George Washington turns 11

February 23, Mayer Amschel Rothschild is born; he goes on to be a German Jewish banker and founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty; He will be referred to as the “founding father of international finance;” He is born to Amschel Moses Rothschild and his wife Schönche Rothschild in Judengasse, the Jewish ghetto of Frankfurt am Main, Holy Roman Empire; He was one of eight children

War of the Austrian Succession continues

Catherine the Great (then Princess Sophia from a German ruling family in Prussia) marries Peter III, “The choice of Sophie as wife to the future tsar was one result of the Lopukhina Conspiracy in which Count Lestocq and Prussian king Fredrick the Great too an active part, the object was to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia, to weaken the influence of Austria and to ruin the chancellor Alesksey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin, on whom Russian Empress Elizabeth relied, and who was a known partisan of the Austrian alliance (Wikipedia)

April 13, Thomas Jefferson turns 1

 

1745

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne – Francis I ascends to the throne of Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany on September 13 

February 22, George Washington turns 12

February 23, Mayer Amschel Rothschild turns 1 

April 13, Thomas Jefferson turns 2

October 19, Jonathan Swift dies on October 19 (b. 1667) in Dublin Ireland, he was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist and clergyman

War of the Austrian Succession continues

The Jacobites are defeated at the Battle of Culloden, and many Highlanders are forced to leave Scotland

 

1746

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne – Francis I is Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany

February 22, George Washington turns 13

February 23, Mayer Amschel Rothschild turns 2 

April 13, Thomas Jefferson turns 3

War of the Austrian Succession continues

The Westminster Bridge is under construction and its commissioners persuade Giovanni Canaletto to visit London in order to pain it, but he definitely puts an Italian twist on the scene, making London and the Thames look more like Venice

 

1747

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne – Francis I is Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany

February 22, George Washington turns 14

February 23, Mayer Amschel Rothschild turns 3 

April 13, Thomas Jefferson turns 4

War of the Austrian Succession continues

Carl Linnaeus is appointed chief royal physician and is knighted in 1758 (in Sweden)

 

1748

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne – Francis I is Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany

February 22, George Washington turns 15

February 23, Mayer Amschel Rothschild turns 4 

April 13, Thomas Jefferson turns 5

War of the Austrian Succession ends (started 1740)

 

1749

King George II is on the English throne – Empress Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Petrovna is on the Russian throne – Frederick II is on the Prussian throne – Louis XV is on the French throne – Francis I is Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany

February 22, George Washington turns 16

February 23, Mayer Amschel Rothschild turns 5 

April 13, Thomas Jefferson turns 6

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